NOUTHETIC COUNSELING:FUNDAMENTALISM IN PASTORAL CARE|
1. Understanding Fundamentalism3
1.1 Origin of the Fundamentalist Movement3
1.2 Five Fundamentals of the Fundamentalist Movement5
1.3 Fundamentalism- Definition6
2. Nouthetic Counseling8
2.1 Background to Nouthetic Counseling8
2.2 Assumptions of Nouthetic Counseling10
2.2.1. Foundation of Nouthetic counseling10
2.2.2 Aim of Nouthetic Counseling10
2.2.3 Need for Nouthetic Counseling11
2.3 Method of Nouthetic Counseling11
3. Nouthetic counseling in a Fundamentalistic Framework13
3.2 Literalism and Legalism14
3.3 Separatist Attitude15
4. Fundamentalism in Pastoral Care16
Fundamentalism is a word that is often associated with religious violence. One is reminded of babri masjid as the Hindu fundamentalists demolished it, or the horrifying images of the planes that were high jacked and crashed into the twin towers by Islamic fundamentalists. We also hear of Christian pro-life fundamentalists who blow up abortion clinics.
Though the word fundamentalism has acquired a negative connotation, its roots go deeper than what the word is generally perceived to be.
The attempt through this paper would be to trace the history of fundamentalism and correlate it with Nouthetic Counseling (a form of biblical counseling) as it operates within the spheres of pastoral care and counseling. Let us start by understanding what fundamentalism is. 1. Understanding Fundamentalism
The term ‘Fundamentalism’ in its original usage was not considered a derogatory term, rather it’s emphasis was on “stating what was essential, fundamental or necessary to the faith.” Over a period of time the term fundamentalism acquired a negative connotation. In order to understand fundamentalism we need to first of all examine it’s origin. 1.1 Origin of the Fundamentalist Movement
According to Ruthven the term ‘Fundamentalism’ first appeared in early part of the twentieth century in “Southern California, one of America’s most rapidly developing regions.” The term ‘fundamentalism’ was taken from a series of 12 volumes which were written from 1910-1915 by a number of British and U.S scholars and ministers, entitled “The Fundamentals: A Testimony of Truth”. These books were sponsored by two wealthy brothers Milton and Lyman Steward who sent these free of cost to Protestant pastors, evangelists, missionaries, theological professors, theological students, Sunday school workers and lay ministers. The aim was to highlight the “fundamentals” of Christian faith and to make material available to ministers so as to help them “in affirming and reaffirming the fundamental truths of Christianity in the face of ever increasing attacks against it.”
In 1920, Curtis Lee Law, a Baptist journalist coined the term “Fundamentalist” in his article which was published in Watchman-Examiner. In this, Law stated “We suggest that those who still cling to the great fundamentals and who mean to do battle royal for the fundamentals shall be called ‘fundamentalists’”.
‘The battle for the fundamentals’ that Law referred to and the ‘ever increasing attacks’ on Christianity that the Steward Brothers were concerned with, was essentially a reactionary movement against the growing secularism, liberalism and modernism. According to Dr. George Ninan, the ‘fundamentalist movement’ was a response to three challenges that the Church was facing. First, the idea of evolution as propounded by Charles Darwin; secondly, the issue of modern biblical criticism, where in the authority of the Bible was questioned and thirdly, ‘anti-supernaturalism’ which sought to make miracles in the Bible redundant. These challenges were...