Bhutanese Refugee in Nepal: Problems and Challenges

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  • Topic: Bhutan, Nepal, Jigme Singye Wangchuck
  • Pages : 33 (10746 words )
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  • Published : February 14, 2010
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Chapter 1: Introduction
1.1General backgroundI
1.2Statement of the ProblemI
1.3Objective of the StudyII
1.4Significance of the StudyII
1.5Literature ReviewII
1.6Limitation of the StudyII
1.7Research MethodologyIII
1.8Organization of the studyIII

Chapter 2: History survey of Bhutanese Refugee problem

2.1 Emergence of Bhutanese problem
2.1.1 Policy of Citizenship and Nationality
(A) Process of Granting Citizenship Certificate Before 1988
(B) Policy of Implementation of 1985 Citizenship Act

2.1.2 Policies of “Driglam Namzha”
2.1.3 Dress Policy
2.1.4 Language Policy
2.1.5 Forceful Implementation of Marriage Act
2.1.6 The policy of Green Belt
2.1.7 Taxation and Force Labor
2.1.8 Mass Demonstration and Protest against RGOB

Chapter 3: Bilateral Negotiation to solve the Bhutanese Refugee Problem 3.1Prologue
3.2Bilateral Negotiations

Chapter 4: Findings, Conclusions and Recommendations

I.Map of Bhutan and its Neighbors
II.Map showing Refugee affected area of Nepal
III.Profile of Bhutan

Chapter - One

Bhutanese Refugees in Nepal:
Problems and Challenges

1. General Background:

Refugee problem is seen as a world wide problem in 21st century. Due to various reasons (civil war, growing population, natural disaster, migration etc.) this kind of problem has been arising. At first it is important to know who refugees are. The issue of refugee and asylum is not new. Refugee phenomenon is old as the concept of nation-state itself. Territorial integrity and sovereignty are basic region responsible for the creation of refugees. Conflicts and tensions within a state and between or among the states give rise to the creation of refugees. Oxford dictionary defines the term refugee as: "person, who has been forced to flee from danger, e.g. from floods, war, political persecutions."1 Similarly refugee has crossed a frontier and no longer possesses the protection of his former of his former government.2

The dimension of refugees' problem became so enlarged and complex during the inter-war period that attempts were made through the setting up of international organization to "deal with the millions of refugees generated by the First World War and break up of multinational empires."3 But here and attempt has been made to highlight the post war period only.

The UN Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees was adopted in 1951. Prior to the adoption of this convention, refugees were recognized on the basis of specific arrangements between states. For the first time, the Convention defines the term "refugee" and mentions their rights and duties.

1.A.S. Hornby with A.P. Cowie, Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English (New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1986), p.708. 2. The English Encyclopedia Britannica, Volume 9, Encyclopedia Brittannica Inc., 15th Edition (Chicago: 1993), p.998. 3.S. D. Muni and Lok Raj Baral , eds. Refugee and Regional Security in South Asia (New Delhi: Konark Publishers Pvt.Ltd., 1996) , p.1-2

The convention has been highly guided by the UN Charter and Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1948. The convention defines a refugee as any person who: "as a result of events occurring before 1 January 1951 and owing to well founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social or political opinion, is outside the country of his nationality and is unable or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to avail himself of the protection of the country……….." 4

The statute of the office of UNHCR defines refugee "as any person, who as a result of events occurring before 1 January 1951 and owing to well founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race,...
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