|Molarities of acidic and basic solutions are often used to convert back and forth between moles of solutes and volumes of their solutions, but how were the |
|molarities of these solutions determined? This webpage describes a procedure called titration, which can be used to find the molarity of a solution of an |
|acid or a base. |
|In titration, one solution (solution 1) is added to another solution (solution 2) until a chemical reaction between the components in the solutions has run |
|to completion. Solution 1 is called the titrant, and we say that it is used to titrate solution 2. The completion of the reaction is usually shown by a |
|change of color caused by a substance called an indicator. |
|A typical titration proceeds in the following way. A specific volume of the solution to be titrated (solution 2) is poured into an Erlenmeyer flask (Figure |
|1). For example, 25.00 mL of a nitric acid solution of unknown concentration might be added to a 250 mL Erlenmeyer flask. |
|A solution of a substance that reacts with the solute in solution 2 is added to a buret. (A buret is a laboratory instrument used to add measured volumes of|
|solutions to other containers.) This solution in the buret, which has a known concentration, is the titrant. The buret is set up over the Erlenmeyer flask |
|so the titrant can be added in a controlled manner to the solution to be titrated (Figure 1). For example, a 0.115 M NaOH solution might be added to a |
|buret, which is set up over the Erlenmeyer flask containing the nitric acid... [continues]
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