Betty Neuman

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BETTY NEUMAN'S SYSTEMS MODEL
MAJOR CONCEPTS
I. PERSON VARIABLES
Each layer, or concentric circle, of the Neuman model is made up of the person variables. Ideally, each of the person variables should be considered simultaneously and comprehensively. -In the Newman System model, she states that a person or a client is made up of variables and they are functioning at the same time. PERSON VARIABLES

1. Physiological - refers of the physicochemical structure and function of the body. 2. Psychological - refers to mental processes and emotions. 3. Spiritual - refers to the influence of spiritual beliefs. 4. Developmental - refers to those processes related to development over the lifespan. -So this variables present in every person are the physiological, psychological, spiritual and developmental. II. CENTRAL CORE

* The basic structure, or central core, is made up of the basic survival factors that are common to the species (Neuman, 1995, in George, 1996). These factors include: system variables, genetic features, and the strengths and weaknesses of the system parts. * The person's system is an open system and therefore is dynamic and constantly changing and evolving. Stability, or homeostasis, occurs when the amount of energy that is available exceeds that being used by the system. * A homeostatic body system is constantly in a dynamic process of input, output, feedback, and compensation, which leads to a state of balance. -the Central Core states that it is the basic structure and it is made up of survival factors that is common in every individual. Betty Neuman also states that a person is an open system, meaning every person are available or can adjust in such environment or in any situation in order do have a balance in a system. For example, if the individual can not adjust do an environment and it cause him an imbalance in the system, then the illness come, but if he balanced the system so therefore he will be healthy or wellness comes. III. FLEXIBLE LINES OF DEFENSE

* The flexible line of defense is the outer barrier or cushion to the normal line of defense, the line of resistance, and the core structure. * If the flexible line of defense fails to provide adequate protection to the normal line of defense, the lines of resistance become activated. * The flexible line of defense acts as a cushion and is described as accordion-like as it expands away from or contracts closer to the normal line of defense. -the flexible line of defense, it is serve as the boundary in the to the outside environment or it is like an shock absorber or an cushion. It is the first one who meet the stressors before entering to the other line of defense, and it will only be happen if the flexible line of defense failed. And it will cause the activation of the line of resistance. IV. NORMAL LINE OF DEFENSE

* The normal line of defense represents system stability over time. It is considered to be the usual level of stability in the system. * The normal line of defense can change over time in response to coping or responding to the environment. * An example is skin, which is stable and fairly constant, but can thicken into a callus over time. -the Normal Line of Defense, states that it is the defense that acts as a usual reaction of the individual to the stressors. An example of this defense is the skin, because it can be thicken in order adjust in such stimulus. V. LINES OF RESISTANCE

* The lines of resistance protect the basic structure and become activated when environmental stressors invade the normal line of defense. * Example: activation of the immune response after invasion of microorganisms. * f the lines of resistance are effective, the system can reconstitute and if the lines of resistance are not effective, the resulting energy loss can result in death. -its primary function is to protect the central core and it will be activated when the normal line...
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