CHAPTER 1
In modern world of technological advancement, there are a lot of applications that are used every day. For example, an airplane relies on Bernoulli’s Principle to generate lift on its wings. Rare cars employ the velocity and pressure dynamics specified by Bernoulli’s Principle to keep their rare wheels on the ground, even while zooming off at high speed. It is successfully employed in mechanism like the carburetor and the atomizer.

The study focuses on Bernoulli’s Theorem in Fluid Application. A fluid is any substance which when acted upon by a shear force, however small, cause a continuous or unlimited deformation, but at a rate proportional to the applied force. As a matter of fact, if a fluid is moving horizontally along a streamline, the increase in speed can be explained due the fluid that moves from a region of high pressure to a lower pressure region and so with the inverse condition with the decrease in speed.

Bernoulli’s Principle complies with the principle of conservation of energy. In a steady Flow, at all points of the streamline of a flowing fluid is the sum of all forms of mechanical energy along a streamline. It was first derived by the Swiss Mathematician Daniel Bernoulli; the theorem states that when a fluid flows from one place to another without friction, its total energy (kinetic+ potential+ pressure) remains constant.

Many of schools, academies or universities cannot provide their student an equipment which can help them in understanding fluid dynamics. They don’t have a “hands on” environment which can develop their knowledge and theoretical concepts.

Our Bernoulli’s Apparatus which is an instructional material purposes will provide for those interested viewer and learners a demonstration of related Bernoulli’s Theorem takes into effect.
Our research topic is available in any related articles or references. We have uncounted number of books and internet site shows a situation of more innovative projects.

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The Bernoulli brothers were two outstanding mathematicians of the late 17th century and early 18th century. They were born in Basel, Switzerland and both graduated from Basel University. The elder brother, Jacob was offered a job as a professor at the university and Johann asked him to teach him mathematics. Their rivalry was born soon after and it is hard to tell whether or not it contributed to their success or not. They established an early correspondence with Gottfried Leibniz but weren’t just his disciples. They plowed their own way in the mathematical world, contributing to probability and infinitesimal calculus on their own. After Jacob died from tuberculosis in 1705 at the age of 51 in Basel, Johann took his position at the university. He went on to teach Leonhard Euler and Guillaume de l’Hopital.
A well know problem that the brothers applied themselves to was the designing of a sloping ramp that would let a ball roll from top to bottom at the fastest possible speed. Johann demonstrated through calculus that neither a straight slope nor one with a very steep initial slope was the right answer. The answer was a curve with a less steep initial slope that was more optimal called a brachistochrone curve which is like an upside down cycloid. This is the perfect example of ‘the Calculus of Variations’ generalization that they developed together. This idea has been largely used in a number of fields such as engineering, financial...

...Exposition of a New Theory on the Measurement of Risk
Daniel Bernoulli
Econometrica, Vol. 22, No. 1. (Jan., 1954), pp. 23-36.
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...Pythagorean Theorem was one of the earliest theorems known to ancient civilizations. This famous theorem is named for the Greek mathematician and philosopher, Pythagoras. Pythagoras founded the Pythagorean School of Mathematics in Cortona, a Greek seaport in Southern Italy. He is credited with many contributions to mathematics although some of them may have actually been the work of his students.
The Pythagorean Theorem is Pythagoras' most famous mathematical contribution. According to legend, Pythagoras was so happy when he discovered the theorem that he offered a sacrifice of oxen. The later discovery that the square root of 2 is irrational and therefore, cannot be expressed as a ratio of two integers, greatly troubled Pythagoras and his followers. They were devout in their belief that any two lengths were integral multiples of some unit length. Many attempts were made to suppress the knowledge that the square root of 2 is irrational. It is even said that the man who divulged the secret was drowned at sea.
The Pythagorean Theorem is a statement about triangles containing a right angle. The Pythagorean Theorem states that:
"The area of the square built upon the hypotenuse of a right triangle is equal to the sum of the areas of the squares upon the remaining sides."
Figure 1
According to the Pythagorean Theorem, the sum of the areas of the two red...

...Binomial, Bernoulli and Poisson Distributions
The Binomial, Bernoulli and Poisson distributions are discrete probability distributions in which the values that might be observed are restricted to being within a pre-defined list of possible values. This list has either a finite number of members, or at most is countable.
* Binomial distribution
In many cases, it is appropriate to summarize a group of independent observations by the number of observations in the group that represent one of two outcomes. For example, the proportion of individuals in a random sample who support one of two political candidates fits this description. In this case, the statistic is the count X of voters who support the candidate divided by the total number of individuals in the group n. This provides an estimate of the parameter p, the proportion of individuals who support the candidate in the entire population.
The binomial distribution describes the behavior of a count variable X if the following conditions apply: the number of observations n is fixed, each observation is independent and represents one of two outcomes ("success" or "failure") and if the probability of "success" p is the same for each outcome.
If these conditions are met, then X has a binomial distribution with parameters n and p, abbreviated B(n,p).
* Bernoulli distribution
In probability theory and statistics, the Bernoulli distribution, named after...

...-------------------------------------------------
Pythagorean Theorem
In mathematics, the Pythagorean theorem or Pythagoras' theorem is a relation in Euclidean geometry among the three sides of a right triangle (right-angled triangle). In terms of areas, it states:
In any right triangle, the area of the square whose side is the hypotenuse (the side opposite the right angle) is equal to the sum of the areas of the squares whose sides are the two legs (the two sides that meet at a right angle).
The theorem can be written as an equation relating the lengths of the sides a, b and c, often called the Pythagorean equation:[1]
where c represents the length of the hypotenuse, and a and b represent the lengths of the other two sides.
These two formulations show two fundamental aspects of this theorem: it is both a statement about areas and about lengths. Tobias Dantzig refers to these as areal and metric interpretations.[2][3] Some proofs of the theorem are based on one interpretation, some upon the other. Thus, Pythagoras' theorem stands with one foot in geometry and the other in algebra, a connection made clear originally byDescartes in his work La Géométrie, and extending today into other branches of mathematics.[4]
The Pythagorean theorem has been modified to apply outside its original domain. A number of these generalizations are described below, including...

...Historical Account:
Pythagoras, the namesake and supposed discoverer of the Pythagorean Theorem, was born on the Greek island of Samos in the early in the late 6th century. Not much is known about his early years of life, however, we do know that Pythagoras traveled through Egypt in the attempt to learn more about mathematics.
Besides his famous theorem, Pythagoras gained fame for founding a group, the Brotherhood of Pythagoreans, which was dedicated solely to study of mathematics and worship of numbers. Pythagoras passed on his belied that numbers are in fact the true "rulers of the universe".
While studying in Egypt, it is believed that Pythagoras studied with people known as the "rope-stretchers", the same people who engineered the pyramids. By using a special form of a rope tied in a circle with 12 evenly spaced knots, they discovered that if the rope was pegged to the ground in the dimensions of 3-4-5, the rope would create a right triangle. The rope stretchers used this principle to help accurately lay the foundations of for their buildings.
It was this fascination with the rope stretchers 3-4-5 triangle that ultimately led to the discovery of the Pythagorean theorem. While experimenting with this concept by drawing in the sand, Pythagoras found that if a square is drawn from each side of the 3-4-5 triangle, the area of the two smaller squares could be added together and equal the area of the large square....

...The Coase Theorem
In “The Problem of Social Cost,” Ronald Coase introduced a different way of thinking about externalities, private property rights and government intervention. The student will briefly discuss how the Coase Theorem, as it would later become known, provides an alternative to government regulation and provision of services and the importance of private property in his theorem.
In his book The Economics of Welfare, Arthur C. Pigou, a British economist, asserted that the existence of externalities, which are benefits conferred or costs imposed on others that are not taken into account by the person taking the action (innocent bystander?), is sufficient justification for government intervention. He advocated subsidies for activities that created positive externalities and, when negative externalities existed, he advocated a tax on such activities to discourage them. (The Concise, n.d.). He asserted that when negative externalities are present, which indicated a divergence between private cost and social cost, the government had a role to tax and/or regulate activities that caused the externality to align the private cost with the social cost (Djerdingen, 2003, p. 2). He advocated that government regulation can enhance efficiency because it can correct imperfections, called “market failures” (McTeer, n.d.).
In contrast, Ronald Coase challenged the idea that the government had a role in taking action targeted...

...BINOMIAL THEOREM :
AKSHAY MISHRA
XI A , K V 2 , GWALIOR
In elementary algebra, the binomial theorem describes the algebraic expansion of powers of a binomial. According to the theorem, it is possible to expand the power (x + y)n into a sum involving terms of the form axbyc, where the coefficient of each term is a positive integer, and the sum of the exponents of x and y in each term is n. For example: The coefficients appearing in the binomial expansion are known as binomial coefficients. They are the same as the entries of Pascal's triangle, and can be determined by a simple formula involving factorials. These numbers also arise in combinatorics, where the coefficient of xn−kyk is equal to the number of different combinations of k elements that can be chosen from an n-element set.
HISTORY :
HISTORY This formula and the triangular arrangement of the binomial coefficients are often attributed to Blaise Pascal, who described them in the 17th century, but they were known to many mathematicians who preceded him. The 4th century B.C. Greek mathematician Euclid mentioned the special case of the binomial theorem for exponent 2 as did the 3rd century B.C. Indian mathematician Pingala to higher orders. A more general binomial theorem and the so-called "Pascal's triangle" were known in the 10th-century A.D. to Indian mathematician Halayudha and Persian mathematician Al-Karaji, and in the 13th century...