Benner's concept of the expert Studies have explored the claim that experienced expert practitioners are unable to articulate all they know, and that their theoretical knowledge and clinical skills are of a qualitatively different type from that of novice practitioners
Benner (1984) states, beginners do not have enough experience upon which to base their expectations. Never the less I had certain preconceptions about the social, academic and knowledge-based aspects of the course
One of the hallmarks of the theory is that each level is built heavily upon the experiences at lower levels (Benner, 1984). For instance, the only usable experiences novices can rely on are textbook knowledge and black-or-white "rules" laid out prior to clinical exposure. Without the benefit of real-life scenarios that are often perplexing to the novice and any given situation's tendency to veer towards "gray areas," a novice will be very limited to routine task performance with little analysis. A step up from a novice, an advanced beginner may be able to perform simple emergency department tasks such as triaging of simple, straightforward cases and recognizing normal variability in vital signs in common clinical scenarios, although atypical settings (e.g. relative bradycardia in typhoid fever) may be misleading. Competent nurses utilize substantial analytical and critical thinking effort in order to assess multiple relevant elements in a patient's condition and arrive at plans that possess both short- and long-term goals."
Benner, P, (1984), From Novice to Expert: Excellence and Power in Clinical Nursing Practice. California: Addison Wesley. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between structure and meaning in multidisciplinary long-term care teams. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 26 staff working on five multidisciplinary teams in the same long-term care facility in Metropolitan Toronto. Staff in different structural locations...
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