Bengali Language Movement

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  • Topic: Bengali Language Movement, Bengali language, Bangladesh
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Bengali Language Movement
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This article is about the language movement in Bangladesh. For other uses, see Language movement (disambiguation). [pic]
Procession march held on 21 February 1952 in Dhaka
The Bengali Language Movement, also known as the Language Movement (Bengali: ভাষা আন্দোলন; Bhasha Andolon), was a political effort in Bangladesh (then known as East Pakistan), advocating the recognition of the Bengali language as an official language of Pakistan. Such recognition would allow Bengali to be used in government affairs. When the state of Pakistan was formed in 1947, its two regions, East Pakistan (also called East Bengal) and West Pakistan, were split along cultural, geographical, and linguistic lines. In 1948, the Government of Pakistan ordained Urdu as the sole national language, sparking extensive protests among the Bengali-speaking majority of East Pakistan. Facing rising sectarian tensions and mass discontent with the new law, the government outlawed public meetings and rallies. The students of the University of Dhaka and other political activists defied the law and organised a protest on 21 February 1952. The movement reached its climax when police killed student demonstrators on that day. The deaths provoked widespread civil unrest led by the Awami Muslim League, later renamed the Awami League. After years of conflict, the central government relented and granted official status to the Bengali language in 1956. In 2000, UNESCO declared 21 February International Mother Language Day for the whole world to celebrate[1], in tribute to the Language Movement and the ethno-linguistic rights of people around the world. The Language Movement catalysed the assertion of Bengali national identity in Pakistan, and became a forerunner to Bengali nationalist movements, including the 6-point movement and subsequently the Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971. In Bangladesh, 21 February is observed as Language Movement Day, a national holiday. The Shaheed Minar monument was constructed near Dhaka Medical College in memory of the movement and its victims. |Contents | |[hide] | | | |3 Events of 1952 | |3.1 21 February | |3.2 22 February | |3.3 Continued unrest | |4 Events after 1952 | |4.1 United Front in 1954 | |4.2 Constitution reform | |4.3 Liberation of Bangladesh | |5 Legacy | |7 Citations | |8 References | |9 Further reading | |10 External links |

[edit] Events of 1952
Procession march held on 4 February 1952 at Nawabpur Road, Dhaka. The Urdu-Bengali controversy was reignited when Jinnah's successor, governor-general Khawaja Nazimuddin, staunchly defended the "Urdu-only" policy in a speech on 27 January 1952.[18] On 31 January, the Shorbodolio Kendrio Rashtrobhasha Kormi Porishod was formed in a meeting at the Bar Library Hall of the University of Dhaka, chaired by Maulana Bhashani.[8][29] The central government's proposal of writing the Bengali language in Arabic script was vehemently opposed at the meeting. The action committee called for an all out protest on 21 February, including strikes and rallies.[18] Students of the University of Dhaka and other institutions gathered on the university...
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