Benefits/Oppression of Culturally Diverse Populations
The history of counseling and psychology has oppressed culturally diverse populations in the fact that it is traditionally geared towards middle and upper class whites. The counseling profession originated from Western societies that have a different outlook on social and personal problems than other non-Western societies (Sue & Sue, 2008). According to Dr. Sue, three reasons that counseling oppresses culturally diverse populations are 1) The mode of counseling is class bound – aimed at middle and upper class 2) Standard English is used with multilingual populations and 3) Values are culture bound- primarily white middle class (Laureate Education, 2008). Awareness in the counseling and psychology field of multiculturalism has led to major changes in the American Psychological Association (APA) Ethics Code. In 2002 the new standard 2.01b requires sensitivity to the impact of cultural, disability and diversity factors on the competence of a psychologist. According to this standard, psychologists should not provide services when they lack needed knowledge and when scientific or professional knowledge has established that a certain understanding of age, gender, gender identity, race, ethnicity, culture, national origin, religion, sexual orientation, disability, language, or socioeconomic status is essential for effective services. (APA, 2002). These changes have made great strides in changing counseling for the multicultural. Standardized testing is devised to measure an individual’s intelligence level or IQ. “In 1989, Professor Rushton of the University of Western Ontario claimed that human intelligence and behavior were largely determined by race, that Whites have bigger brains than Blacks, and that Blacks are more aggressive (Sue & Sue, 2008). The Bell Curve continues to stimulate a controversy that intelligence is inherited to a large degree and race is correlated with intellect. Proponents of Nature vs....
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