1.0 Learning outcome:
1.1 Determine the magnitude of the fixing moment in a continuous beam by experiment and to compare this with the value predicted by theory.

WeightDial gauge Aluminium Brounze 3.0 Safety and health:
3.1 Make sure the student follow the laboratory or workshop safety regulator. 3.2 Experiment must be conduct by lecturers or experience lab assistance. 3.3 Always wear appropriate protective clothing.

3.4 Be familiar with the location of emergency equipment-fire alam ,fire extinguisher,emergency eye wash and safety shower. 3.5 Always wash hand and arms wit soap and water before leaving the work area. 3.6 Never perform unauthorized work,preparation or experiments.

4.0 Theory:

1.Horizontal structural member used to support horizontal loads such as floors, roofs, and decks. 2. Consider a simply supported beam of length, L.
3. The The cross section is rectangular with width b and height h cross section is rectangular, with width, b, and height, h. 4. Beams have been used since dim antiquity to support loads over empty space, as roof beams supported by thick columns, or er of the approximate methods called "strength of materials methods. 5." These methods depend on the use of statics, superposition and simplifying assumptions that turn out to be very close to the truth. 6. They give approximate, not exact, results that are usually more than adequate for engineering work. 7. Calculus and a little differential equations are all the mathematics required for this approach, not the partial differential equations or tensor analysis that are typical tools in elasticity. Types of beam loads

...report
“Measurement of bendingmoment and
shear forces for structural analysis”
Azamat Omarov
ID201102658
1.Theory and background
1.1 Summary
That performed laboratory session on bendingmoments and shear forces requires good understanding and sufficient knowledge of axial forces. Bending is defined as a behavior of any structural element that undergoes the external load, which is applied perpendicularly to longitudinal axis. That experiment helps us to find the maximum load that can be applied to the beam with rectangular cross section. Moments are calculated by using statics theory, or multiplying perpendicularly directed load by the respective distance to the pivot point.
1.2 Objective
The main objective of that laboratory is to provide students with basic experience and thus, the comparison between calculated and measured values (software) should be demonstrated to show the ability to apply statics theory from applied mechanics module.
1.3 Theory
Shear forces
The shearing force at any section of a beam is the algebraic sum of the lateral components of the forces acting on either side of the section. F is the resultant reaction on the left of AA. As the beam is in equilibrium then resultant reaction on the right of AA must be downwards.
Figure1. Shear forces diagram
Equilibrium state
∑Fx=0N; ∑Fy=0N; ∑Mo=0N.m (1)
In our case we use AA as a reference...

... Bending of a Channel Section
Experiment Two: Stiffness Report from laboratory work performed on 12 May 2011 as a part of the unit of study CIVL2201 Structural Mechanics
Abstract
This report has been written to describe an experiment performed on a channel section examining the stiffness of the beam through two differing types of deformation – curvature and deflection. The aim of the experiment was to determine the value of the flexural rigidity (EI) in two different ways; using the curvature, k, and the mid-span deflection. The testing method used for the experiment is described. The experiment found that the EI values calculated were as follows: - EIcurv = 1.76E+10 Mpa.mm4 when calculated using the curvature, k. - EIdefl = 1.77E+10 Mpa.mm4 when calculated using the mid-span deflection.
Bending of a Channel Section
Table of Contents
Abstract ................................................................................................................................. 1 Introduction ........................................................................................................................ 3 Test Method ......................................................................................................................... 3 Diagram of the test setup ........................................................................................................ 3 ....

...
Lab report
SHEAR FORCE & BENDINGMOMENT
Bachelor (Hons) of Civil Engineering
Course: Structures l (ECS3213)
Lecturer: Ir Pan
Submission date: 07-11-2013
Group 8: Members
No.
Name
Student ID
1
Diallo Mamadou Aliou
SCM-014804
2
Balmeiiz Abilkhaiyrova
SCM-014742
3
Elmogdad Merghani Mohamed Elhag
SCM-017223
4
Omar Mohamed Abdelgawwad
SCM- 018031
5
Salah Mohammed Alesaei
SCM-015473
6
Ali Abdulrahman Mohammed
SCM-008879
7
Kasem Heiazi
SCM-017913
Contents
A. Introduction: 3
B. Objectives: 4
C. Theory: 4
D. Apparatus: 6
E. Procedures: 7
F. Results: 9
G. Calculations: 9
H. Shear Force Experiment Discussion: 14
I. BendingMoment Discussion: 15
J. Conclusion: 15
K. References 16
A. Introduction:
It is important to know how the shear forces and bendingmoments vary along the length of a beam that is being designed. Graphs are used to describe the change of shear forces and moments. These graphs are called shear and moment diagrams. Employing these diagrams, the maximum and minimum shear and moment are easily identified and located.
Constructing shear and moment diagrams is similar to finding the shear and moment at a particular point on a beam structure. However, instead of using an exact location, the location is a variable distance 'x'. This allows the shear and moment to be a...

...1.0 OBJECTIVE
1.1 To examine how bendingmoment varies with an increasing point load.
1.2 To examine how bendingmoment varies at the cut position of the beam for various loading condition.
2.0 LEARNING OUTCOMES
2.1 To application the engineering knowledge in practical application
2.2 To enhance technical competency in structural engineering through laboratory application.
2.3 To communicate effectively in group.
2.4 To identify problem, solving and finding out appropriate solution through laboratory application.
3.0 THEORY
3.1 There are a number of assumptions that were made in order to develop the Elastic Theory of Bending. These are:
* The beam has a constant, prismatic cross-section and is constructed of a flexible, homogenous material that has the same Modulus of Elasticity in both tension and compression (shortens or elongates equally for same stress).
* The material is linearly elastic; the relationship between the stress and strain is directly proportional.
* The beam material is not stressed past its proportional limit.
* A plane section within the beam before bending remains a plane after bending (see AB & CD in the image below).
* The neutral plane of a beam is a plane whose length is unchanged by the beam's deformation. This plane passes through the centroid of the cross-section.
3.2 In...

...BEAM DESIGN FORMULAS
WITH SHEAR AND MOMENT
DIAGRAMS
2005 EDITION
ANSI/AF&PA NDS-2005
Approval Date: JANUARY 6, 2005
ASD/LRFD
N DS
®
NATIONAL DESIGN SPECIFICATION®
FOR WOOD CONSTRUCTION
WITH COMMENTARY AND
SUPPLEMENT: DESIGN VALUES FOR WOOD CONSTRUCTION
American
Forest &
Paper
Association
x
w
Wood
American Wood Council
American Wood Council
R
R
2
2
V
Shear
V
Mmax
Moment
American
Forest &
DESIGN AID No. 6
DESIGN
Paper
Association
BEAM FORMULAS WITH
SHEAR AND MOMENT
DIAGRAMS
The American Wood Council (AWC) is part of the wood products group of the
American Forest & Paper Association (AF&PA). AF&PA is the national trade
association of the forest, paper, and wood products industry, representing member
companies engaged in growing, harvesting, and processing wood and wood fiber,
manufacturing pulp, paper, and paperboard products from both virgin and recycled
fiber, and producing engineered and traditional wood products. For more information
see www.afandpa.org.
While every effort has been made to insure the accuracy
of the information presented, and special effort has been
made to assure that the information reflects the state-ofthe-art, neither the American Forest & Paper Association
nor its members assume any responsibility for any
particular design prepared from this publication. Those
using this document assume all liability from its use....

...LABORATORY EXPERIMENT NO. 3
BENDING OF BEAMS - (a) BendingMoment I
(b) BendingMoment II
SECTION 1
GROUP NUMBER 3
GROUP MEMBERS
1. YEOW SU LEE ( CE085335 )
2. JOUDI J. MOOSOM ( CE085338 )
3. NINI EZLIN ROSLI ( CE086340 )
4. MOHD AFIQ AFIFE BIN ABAS ( CE085310 )
5. ROHAM HADIYOUN ZADEH ( CE085851 )
DATE OF LABORATORY SESSION 6 DECEMBER 2010
DATE OF REPORT SUBMISSION 13 DECEMBER 2010
LAB INSTRUCTOR MISS SITI ALIYYAH MASJUKI
LAB REPORT MARKING |
CRITERIA | Scale |
| Poor | | Acceptable | | Excellent |
A. Appearance, formatting and grammar/spelling | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 |
B. Introduction and objective | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 |
C. Procedure | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 |
D. Results: data, figures, graphs, table, etc. | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 |
E. Discussion | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 |
F. Conclusions | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 |
TABLE OF CONTENT
Section | Page |
Summary | |
Objective | |
Apparatus | |
Procedure | |
Results | |
Discussion | |
Conclusions | |
SUMMARY
When applied loads act along a beam, an internal bendingmoment which varies from point to point along the axis of the beam is developed. A bendingmoment is an internal force that is induced in a restrained structural element when external forces are applied. Failure by...

...BendingMoment
EXPERIMENT 2B: SHEAR FORCE AND BENDINGMOMENT
1. ABSTRACT
Performance-based design approach, demands a thorough understanding of axial forces.
Bending characterizes the behavior of a slender structural element subjected to an
external load applied perpendicularly to a longitudinal axis of the element. By this experiment
we can verify the limit load for the beam of rectangular cross-section under pure bending.
Moments at the specific points are calculated by the method of statics or by multiplying the
perpendicular force or load and the respective distance of that load from the pivot point.
2. OBJECTIVE
The objective of this experiment is to compare the theoretical internal moment with the
measured bendingmoment for a beam under various loads.
3. KEYWORDS
Bendingmoment, hogging, sagging, Datum value, under-slung spring, spring balance and
Beam, Neutral axis.
4.
THEORY
BendingMoments:
BendingMoment at AA is defined as the algebraic sum of the moments about the section of all
forces acting on either side of the section.
Definition of a Beam:
Members that are slender and support loadings that are applied perpendicular to their
Page 1 of 14
BendingMoment...

...simple bending (assumptions)
Material of beam is homogenous and isotropic => constant E in all direction Young’s modulus is constant in compression and tension => to simplify analysis Transverse section which are plane before bending before bending remain plain after bending. => Eliminate effects of strains in other direction (next slide) Beam is initially straight and all longitudinal filaments bend in circular arcs => simplify calculations Radius of curvature is large compared with dimension of cross sections => simplify calculations Each layer of the beam is free to expand or contract => Otherwise they will generate additional internal stresses.
Bending in beams
Key Points: 1. Internal bendingmoment causes beam to deform. 2. For this case, top fibers in compression, bottom in tension.
Bending in beams
Key Points: 1. Neutral surface – no change in length. 2. Neutral Axis – Line of intersection of neutral surface with the transverse section. 3. All cross-sections remain plane and perpendicular to longitudinal axis.
Bending in beams
Key Points: 1. Bendingmoment causes beam to deform. 2. X = longitudinal axis 3. Y = axis of symmetry 4. Neutral surface – does not undergo a change in length
Consider the simply supported beam below:...