The Egyptian ‘empire’
New kingdom egypt from amenhotep iii to the death of ramesses ii New kingdom egypt from amenhotep iii to the death of ramesses ii
1. What is an empire? What benefits can the ruling nation receive as a result of controlling an empire? An empire is when a leader controls a nation. It was harder for them to find an emperor that resembled a ‘warrior image’.
2. In your own words, list the changes that occurred in Egyptian society as a result of maintaining an empire. * The Egyptian society developed a permanent professional army and the growth of the heroic warrior king tradition. * Amun ascended to an imperial god with wealth and influence of his priesthood adding to his cult temple at Karnak. * With foreigners in the army and bureaucracy (state or organization), impacting on population structure religion and culture. * An incredibly large amount of wealth in the form of booty. Tribute and trade and its effects in the lifestyle of the upper classes and demands for skilled craftsmen.
3. Explain why the Egyptians gradually expanded their ‘empire’. Aldred suggests that for some pharaohs, ‘the taste for warfare and the pre-emptive strike, provoked by the Hyksos wars, had developed into an appetite for imperial adventures’.
4. Why do you think that the pharaohs began to depict themselves as ‘warrior-pharaohs’? Warrior pharaohs were seen as mighty in strength, protectors, strong-armed and ones who conquered. Pharaohs were always shown larger than life in the midst battle. Basically they wanted to look tough and almighty.’ heroic image’.
5. How did the pharaohs use the wealth that flowed into Egypt from surrounding territories? The wealth that flowed into Egypt enabled the kings to enhance their status by generous endowments to the gods, rewards to officials and massive building programs. The power and lifestyle of many people depended on the growth and maintenance of the empire.
6. Find out where each of the following areas is. Describe the location in modern terms. a) Nubia- is a region along the Nile River, which is located in Northern Sudan and Southern Egypt. b) Syria- is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the West, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south and Israel to the southwest. c) Palestine- is located in Western Asia between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River, and various adjoining lands. 1. For each of the above locations, list some of the methods that were used by Egypt to control them. Nubia was brought under permanent Egyptian control by the time of Thutmose I. Sons and chiefs were held hostage sometimes to 1. Keep rebellious chiefs in check and
2. Provide future Egyptianised officials and rulers for the conquered territories.
The princes of Palestine and Syria were permitted to retain their authority, as long as they recognised the pharaoh as their lord. Oaths of loyalty were demanded, they had to agree to pay regular quotas to supply any Egyptian troops marching through their territory with all the necessities and to serve in the pharaoh’s army when needed. Development of a Professional Army
Development of a Professional Army
1. How did the make-up of the Egyptian army change in the 18th and 19th dynasties? The army in the early 18th century adopted superior weapons influenced by Asiatic invaders which were new types of bronze swords and daggers, bronze and leather armour, the powerful compound bow and most importantly, the horse drawn chariot!
In the 19th century, a division of 5000 troops might include only 1900 Egyptians as against 3100 mercenaries.
2. How was the army organised during the reign of Ramesses II? In 4 divisions each of 5000 men and named after one of the chief gods:
Changes to the Image of the Pharaoh
Changes to the Image of the Pharaoh
1. Which gods did...