Foundations of Psychology
In this paper we will define two types of learning; they are operant and classical conditioning. Secondly, we will distinguish between classical and operant conditioning. We will explore how phobias can be developed through classical conditioning; as well as how addictions can be developed through operant conditioning. Lastly, we will explain what extinction means and how it is achieved in both classical and operant conditioning. Let us start by defining both operant and classical conditioning. “Operant conditioning (sometimes referred to as instrumental conditioning) is a method of learning that occurs through rewards and punishments for behavior. Through operant conditioning, an association is made between a behavior and a consequence for that behavior.” ( cite this Kendra cherry) this term was first used by a behaviorist b.f. skinner, who was one of the first ones to describe the term. A drug addiction is a form of dependency that dives into the reward systems behavioral change. With a drug addiction, the drug acts as a reward, or positive reinforcement, and with the repetition the association between response and reward becomes stronger and stronger. An important principle for understanding problematic drug use is the immediacy that comes from the reinforcement. It has been established that the immediate reinforcement follows a behavior. The more powerful the drug’s effects will be on that behavior and the more likely the behavior will be repeated. Classical conditioning involves pairing a previously neutral stimulus (such as the sound of a bell) with an unconditioned stimulus (the taste of food). This unconditioned stimulus naturally and automatically triggers salivating as a response to the food, which is known as the unconditioned response. After associating the neutral stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus, the sound of the bell alone will start to evoke salivating as a response. The sound of the bell is now known as the...
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