Behavioral Theories of Learning

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BEHAVIORISM: STIMULUS, RESPONSE, REINFORCEMENT
John B. Watson 1878-1958 Behaviorism
* The founder and Coined the term "Behaviorism" in 1913
* Saw it as a means of stripping ignorance and superstition ignorance and superstition from human existence, thereby paving the way for more rational and meaningful living * "learning through stimulus substitution," a reference to the substitution of one stimulus for another Lasting Effects on Psychology

* Consciousness could be studied through the study of introspection, a notoriously unreliable research tool * Through prediction and control of behavior
* He thought complex behaviors came about through combinations of identifiable reflexes • He was a chief proponent of "nurture" and believed that all human differences were the result of learning • He believed that PRACTICE strengthens learning

* Made Psychology as a subject matter

BEHAVIORISM PARADIGM|
PRINCIPLE (mechanism of response) | “stimulus-response” | BEHAVIOR | caused by external stimuli (operant conditioning), WITHOUT the need to consider internal mental states or consciousness | LEARNER | essentially passivestarts off as a clean slate (i.e. tabula rasa)| BEHAVIOR | shaped through positive reinforcement or negative reinforcement => to increase/ decrease the probability that the antecedent behavior will happen |

Edward L. Thorndike 1874-1949
CONNECTIVISM
* CONNECTIVISM -the idea that bonds between stimulus and response take the form of neural connections. Learning involves the "stamping in" of connections (between), forgetting involves "stamping out" connections * Placed on consequences of behavior as determiners of what is learned and what is not * Among the first to apply psychological principles in the area of teaching * THE LAW OF EFFECT

Responses which occur just PRIOR to a satisfying state of affairs are MORE LIKELY TO BE REPEATED, and responses just prior to an annoying state of affairs are more likely NOT to be repeated

Connectivism
1. Multiple Response
* Problem solving =trial and error
2. Set or Attitude
* predisposition's to behave or react in a particular way * Unique for species; may be culturally determined in humans 3. Prepotency of Elements
* a learner could filter out irrelevant aspects of a situation and respond only to significant (proponent) elements in a problem situation 4. Response by Analogy
* a.k.a. theory of identical elements
* responses from related or similar contexts may be transferred to the new context Associative shifting
* possible to shift any response from one stimulus to another 7. Law of Readiness
* a series of responses can be chained together
to satisfy some goal which will result in
annoyance if blocked
7. Law of Exercise
* A connections become strengthened with practice, and weaken when practice is discontinued 9. Intelligence
* function of the number of connections made
IMPLICATION FOR EDUCATION
* Thorndlike would have an orderly classroom with the objectives clearly defined * The educational objectives
* must be within the learner’s response capabilities, and they must be divided into manageable units-- so that the teacher can apply a satisfying state of affairs when the learner makes an appropriate response * Motivation is relatively UNIMPORTANT except in determining what constitutes a ‘satisfying state of affairs” for the learner * The learner’s behavior is determined primarily by external reinforcers and NOT by instrinsic motivation. Emphasis is on bringing about the correct responses to a stimuli * Incorrect practices are to be CORRECTED RAPIDLY so that they are NOT practiced therefore EXAMINATIONS are important for feedback regarding learning process * THORNDIKIAN TEACHERS

* would use positive control in the classroom because satisfiers strenghtens...
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