The Science of Psychology
• Redefining Psychology: The • • •
Study of Behavior The Cognitive Revolution New Directions Where Are the Women?
What Is Psychology? • The Fields of Psychology • Enduring Issues • Psychology as Science • Critical Thinking: Thinking Like a Scientist The Growth of Psychology • The “New Psychology”: A Science of the Mind
Human Diversity • Gender • Race and Ethnicity • Culture
Research Methods in Psychology • Naturalistic Observation • Case Studies • Surveys • Correlational Research • Experimental Research • Multimethod Research • The Importance of Sampling
• Human Diversity and
Ethics and Psychology: Research on Humans and Animals • Animal Research ISBN 1-256-37427-X
Careers in Psychology
Understanding Psychology, Ninth Edition, by Charles G. Morris and Albert A. Maisto. Published by Prentice Hall. Copyright © 2010 by Pearson Education, Inc.
ernita Lee was 18 and unmarried in 1954 when she gave birth to a daughter in her mother’s rundown Mississippi farmhouse. The baby’s father, Vernon, was not seriously involved with Vernita, who continued to live with her mother, Hattie Mae. Four years later Vernita moved to Milwaukee, where she heard that young Black women could earn good money working as maids. Her daughter remained with Hattie Mae, helping to tend the pigs and chickens and hauling water from the well to the house. Without neighborhood friends to play with, the child entertained herself by talking to the animals, delighting in making speeches to the cows. Extremely gifted in language and encouraged by her grandmother, who highly valued education, she learned to read and write at the age of 3. Because of her remarkable ability to memorize passages from the Bible, she soon began delivering inspirational speeches in church, earning her the nickname “Little Preacher.” But the precocious child’s life took a turn for the worse when she went to Milwaukee to live with her mother in a shabby rooming house. Vernita did not share Hattie Mae’s devotion to education and she belittled her daughter’s deep love of books. Neglected and often inadequately supervised, the girl was raped by a 19-year-old cousin when she was only 9
years old. Terrified, she kept her dark secret, only to become sexually abused by a procession of other men. Soon she blamed herself for what was happening to her. She also began to lie, steal, and run away. Vernita tried but failed to have her placed in a home for delinquent teenagers. Instead, the now pregnant 14-year-old girl went to live with her father, Vernon, in Nashville, Tennessee. After the baby was born prematurely and died soon after birth, Vernon was able to provide his troubled daughter with the love, stability, and discipline she needed to turn her life around. He and his wife Zelma encouraged her to study hard and cultivate her talent for public speaking. Winning a speech contest earned her a 4-year scholarship to college. Other contest victories followed, capturing the attention of staff at a local radio station, who offered her a job as a newscaster even before she had graduated from high school. In college, CBS in Nashville hired her to anchor the evening news. She eventually moved to Chicago, where she began hosting a popular TV talk show. Audiences loved her personal touch and the way she often shared her innermost thoughts and feelings. Within a year the show had a new name. Rather than “A.M. Chicago,” now it was “The Oprah Winfrey Show.”
WHAT IS PSYCHOLOGY?
“Most psychologists study mental and emotional problems and work as psychotherapists.” Is this statement true or false? Why have we chosen the story of Oprah Winfrey to introduce you to the subject of psychology? It is because this story raises so many fascinating questions about human beings. What motivates a person to persevere against all odds and overcome enormous challenges? Do certain personality traits give such people...