Learning is an important topic that can explain a lot of the developments in life. “An operant is a voluntary behavior that is used in order to obtain a reinforcer or avoid a punisher. Operant Conditioning uses reinforcement and punishment systematically to facilitate learning. Its unique foci include, first, its focus on voluntary behaviors (“operants”), and second, its emphasis on the consequences of behavior. Other learning theories emphasize antecedents rather than consequences and involuntary behaviors, or reflexes, rather than operants.”(Operant, 2008) A reinforce is a stimulus that follows a particular behavior and which usually increases the likelihood that the certain behavior will be repeated. A positive reinforce adds something rewarding to a situation, which could include pleasant music, money, or food. Negative reinforcers subtract something from a situation by removing an unpleasant stimulus. Both of these reinforcements result in new strengths or behaviors
Punishments make it so operants are less likely to occur. Punishment usually adds something unpleasant to an environment. For example, receiving detention at school for bad behavior will reduce the likelihood that this bad behavior is repeated. Superstitious behavior is usually created by linking an incidental factor caused by positive incident or reinforcement. We might begin to develop an elaborate explanation for the occurrences. A good example of this would be if put a coin in a slot machine and you win, then you continue to put money in the slot machine because you won the first time. You assume that you could win again, so then you continue to try until you win again and again. This starts the trend that you think because it happened once that it will happen again. This can work for many different cases as well, if you write an essay for school and won a contest; perhaps it happens again. You might begin to think that that the pen... [continues]
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