: ADRIANO GILBERT JEANNETON
STUDENT IDENTITY NUMBER
: BEGE 102
: THE STRUCTURE OF MODERN ENGLISH
: DR ISHWAR R DHOOWOOAH
: 08 SEPTEMBER 2012
1. Write short notes on any two of the following:
Use appropriate examples, wherever applicable, to illustrate your answer:
Phonology is the study of how sound system is organized and used in a natural language. The sounds are organized into distinctive units called phonemes, then the phonemes are combined into syllables, and finally the features of length, stress and pitch are organised into patterns. Phonology also scrutinizes the sound patterns of a particular language by determining which phonetic sounds are significant and explaining how these sounds are interpreted by the native speaker. Below are examples of the different unit which constituted phonology: A phoneme is the smallest sound unit in a language that is capable of conveying a distinct meaning, such as the s of sing and the r of ring.
A syllable is one or more letters representing a unit of spoken language consisting of a single uninterrupted sound. For example: what, are, king consist of 1 syllable. Cassette, recipe and English are made of 2 syllables
Stress in phonetics is the degree of emphasis given to a syllable or sound in speech. Its main function is to provide a way of distinguishing degrees of emphasis or contrast in a sentence. For example in the following nouns such as PRESent, SLENder, CLEVer, HAPpy, the stress is on the capital letters.
Intonation implies the tone of the speaker, intention and attitude as well as temperament.
Morphemes are what make up words. It is a combination of sounds which has a meaning. We have words with one single morpheme and also one word with two morphemes. The latter can be classified into free morphemes and bound morphemes. Moreover, morpheme is not to be considered as syllable. As for example, the word cats have only 1 syllable but 2 morphemes. Below, we will show a better explanation and also a list of the different structures of morphemes:
A) Free morpheme
Dog is a free morpheme as it can stand alone without as a word without another morpheme. B) Suffix morpheme
Dog (1 morpheme) + s(1 morpheme). In this case, dog is the base morpheme and s is the suffix morpheme. The former is a morpheme that gives the word its meaning. That is dog is a specific animal. C) Prefix morpheme
Base morpheme is turn and re is called the prefix which is another morpheme. Prefix morpheme D) Bound morpheme
a sound or a combination of sounds that cannot stand alone as a word. The s in cats is a bound morpheme, and it does not have any meaning without the free morpheme cat. E) Base morpheme
A free or bound morpheme, to which other meaningful sounds, can be added to form words. Examples of base morphemes include base in basic, or frame in reframe. F) Derivational morphemes
Morphemes that construct new words. In the following examples, derivational morphemes are added to produce new words which are derived from the parent word. happy – happiness – unhappiness, , frost – defrost – defroster, examine – examination – reexamination G) Allomorphs morphemes: They are different phonetic forms or variations of a morpheme. The final morphemes in the following words are pronounced differently, but they all indicate plurality: dogs, cats, and horses
H) Homonyms morphemes: They are spelled the same but have different meanings. As for examples; bear (an animal) and bear (to carry), plain (simple) and plain ( a level area of land).
I) Homophones morphemes: They sound alike but have different meanings and spellings. As for example: bear, bare;...
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