Lecture 2: GROUPS AND TEAMS
*Groups/Teams – same - people with complementary skills, to achieve shared purpose and are held mutually responsible. *Formal Teams – officially recognised (organisational chart) and supported by the organisation for specific purposes. *Informal Teams- Natural or spontaneous relationship. No OC
*Hierarchy – single person authority/performance responsibility. *Self-managed teams – decisions/complete work on own. Mutually responsible. Perform various tasks. Ingredients of a useful team
*Nature of the task -clear, unambiguous (written goals)
-complexity – more complex = more communication needed.
*What the organisation provides?
-resources, technology, structures, rewards.
*Information-various sources, access to the best information is fundamental. *Team size - Small – more cohesive. Big – less workload, more arguments. Members share the load, size is limited as only certain range of skills for performing task. Issues to consider in selection of people
-skill, seniority and personality.
Diversity v similarity: D – greater range of ideas, perspectives and experience. S – easier to manage relationships. Stages in team development
*forming – initial orientation/interpersonal testing
*storming – high emotionality/conflict over task/team working. *norming –consolidation around tasks/operating agendas.
*performing – teamwork and focused task performance (maturity, organised group, trust, open communication.) *adjourning – disband, willing to work together again.
Norms/ Behaviours – positive (high performance)
-performance, interaction behaviour, punctuality
Cohesiveness – high (strong commitments)
-degree to which members are attracted to a team.
*Task activities – contribute to team’s purpose, performance. focus on solving problems/ accomplishing tasks.
*Maintenance activities – support the emotional life.
strengthen and perpetuate the team as a social entity.
Decision-making in teams
-lack of response, authority rule, minority, majority, consensus, unanimity. **adv – group decision making. More expertise, alternatives, commitment, decision is accepted by all members. **disadv – intimidation, time-consuming.
**Groupthink –Hi. cohesive teams lose evaluative capabilities. *dealing- critical evaluator, create subteams, 2nd chance meeting. **Brain storming: Criticism ruled out/ quantity important.
Nominal group technique: (1) participants work alone (2) ideas shared (3) ideas discussed (4) members individually vote (written) (5) 3&4 repeated as necessary. .
Lecture 3: MANAGERS AND MANAGEMENT
*Organisation: a group of resources working together to achieve what they could not achieve on their own. Purpose provide useful g/s that return value to society and satisfy customer needs in order to justify existence. *Open systems: composed of interrelated parts that function together to achieve common purpose. Measuring Performance – efficiency and effectiveness
*Productivity - measure of the quantity and quality of work performance with resource utilisation taken into account. **Efficiency – measure of cost vs. goal accomplishment. **Effectiveness- measure of task output or goal accomplishment. Manager’s Jobs
Responsible for: Planning, maximising productivity, financials, budgeting and reporting. Drive long-term strategic direction. Levels of management
**Senior managers- performance of organisation as a whole.
**Middle Managers- report to top management and incharge of relatively large departments or devisions. **Teamleaders/Supervisors – small workgroups.
Type of Managers
**line (work activities that affect organisations outputs), **staff (support line m) **functional (single activity), **General. Perspectives of Management
*P1 Disciplines – discrete Ds not overlapping but interrelated *P2 *Planning – identify and set goals and courses of action. *Organising – create structure (for relationships & work) *Leading – determine direction/vision....