Monica Suzanne B. Castro
November 7, 2014
Basic Biology Discussion
The basic structure of life can be traced to cells, which makes up all living organisms. Cells reproduce and therefore all existing cells arise from previous cells. Cells make up different parts of the human body, plants, fungi and essentially every living thing. There are different types of cells including eukaryotic cells and prokaryotic cells. Eukaryotic cells can be further distinguished as animal cells or plant cells. Eukaryotic cells differ from the more primitive prokaryotic cells because of the presence of a membranous organelles in the cytoplasm, a nuclear membrane and chromosomal proteins. The nucleus in the eukaryotic cell holds the majority of the genetic material and controls all activity within the cell, analogous to a blueprint. DNA replication and transcription occurs in the nucleus. Translation of the mRNA on the other hand occurs in ribosomes, which carry out protein synthesis for the cell. Ribosomes are essential for protein assembly, including enzymes which are important for many cellular functions. There is also the endoplasmic reticulum, which has two types: smooth and rough. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum is responsible for lipid synthesis and processing metabolic processes such as drug detoxification and lacks ribosomes. The rough endoplasmic reticulum is responsible for protein synthesis because of the presence of ribosomes. Cell membranes are also important and cell walls are found in plant cells. Both are responsible for regulating the entrance and exit of substances and particles, maintaining an internal balance. The Golgi apparatus is responsible for shipping vesicles delivered from the smooth endoplasmic reticulum. Chloroplasts are only found in plant cells and use sunlight to create energy via photosynthesis. Photosynthesis is where plants use carbon dioxide, water and sunlight to create energy in the form of glucose for...
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