PSY325: Statistics for Behavioral and Social Sciences
Basic Psychology Theories
In this paper I am going to discuss the basic fundamentals when it comes to psychology and some other known essential key points. The five main categories of theories are Neuroscience, Psychodynamic, Behavioral, Cognitive, and Humanistic. Each category contains a very large history scaling all the way back to when Hippocrates or Aristotle roamed the earth. Once the category has been established I will give an example of how it relates to a specific event, then my opinion vs. the subject. After the main categorical perspectives have been discussed I will break off into how the scientific process works and some essential understanding of normal vs. abnormal psychology. Finally I will then conclude the essay with my own breakdown of my thoughts and beliefs on the subject. The first Perspective is called Neuroscience which basically views behavior from a perspective of biological functioning. What I mean by that is Neuroscience devotes its views to a scientific study of the nervous system. It's pretty much also viewed as a form of biological study on the brain and mind. It breaks down how we are our father’s son or mother’s daughter and how we are a replica of our parent’s image. The genes that were handed down before us lay a foundation for us to live and act by. If one’s parent were to have a hereditary disease then it would state the disease would have a high probability of being passed onto the child. Some of the fields that helped us understand neuroscience more was molecular biology, neural networks, and computational neuroscience. Molecular biology is the study of molecules under the interactions inside the various systems within a cell including how DNA, RNA, and protein biosynthesis cooperate. Neural networks are the branches of biological neurons with the body. Lastly computational neuroscience combines all sorts of research in order to test hypotheses that can be directly confirmed by a biological experiment. The next perspective I’m going to discuss is called the psychodynamic perspective which had strong ties to a man called Sigmund Freud. Sigmund was an Austrian neurologist and psychologist labeled to be the father of psychoanalysis but also greatly known for the Id, Ego, and Superego which were structural forms of the mind. He has such an impact on the development of psychology that other non followers named themselves against his beliefs and called themselves neo Freudians. This view is based on unconscious thoughts that sit in our minds and influence our everyday decisions. The inner forces create conflicts and persuade us in ways we never knew existed. Understanding this view can help people in many ways such as depression or other mental disorders. In the depression scenario the psychologist would try to determine the issue at hand whether it’s stress from work, life, marriage, or even learning to cope with certain problems. Another focus that psychoanalysis can be used for is determining why a person is prejudice or aggressive towards an individual. Someone cannot say truthfully that they hate a person simply because of their skin without having some form of influence placed upon them from another being. The behavioral perspective I find to be one of the more interesting views. When you quote a man named John B. Watson he said “Give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed, and my own specified world to bring them up in and I'll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might select – doctor, lawyer, artist, merchant-chief and, yes, even beggar-man and thief, regardless of his talents, penchants, tendencies, abilities, vocations, and race of his ancestors. I am going beyond my facts and I admit it, but so have the advocates of the contrary and they have been doing it for many thousands of years.” Which makes me wonder if he were...