Basic Petroleum Technology

Only available on StudyMode
  • Download(s) : 28
  • Published : February 19, 2012
Open Document
Text Preview
INTRODUCTION6

ORIGIN OF PETROLEUM7

Inorganic Theories7
Deep seated terrestrial hypothesis7
Extraterrestrial hypothesis.7

Problems with inorganic hypotheses.8

Generation of crude oil13

Generation of Natural Gas14

CHEMISTRY OF PETROLEUM15

Introduction:15

Hydrocarbons15
Paraffin Series16
Unsaturated Hydrocarbons18
Naphthene Hydrocarbons19
Aromatic Hydrocarbons19

Types of Crude Oils20
Paraffin-based Crude Oils20
Asphaltic Based Crude Oils20
Mixed Base Crude Oils21

Natural Gas21

PETROLEUM GEOLOGY23

The Rock Cycle23

The 3 basic types of rocks.25

Igneous Rocks25
Texture26
Composition26

Sedimentary Rocks27
Clastic sedimentary rocks:28
Sandstone28
Conglomerate28
Shale29
Clays29
Bentonite30
Chemical sedimentary rocks:30
Organic sedimentary rocks30

Metamorphic Rocks31

The Geological Time Scale31

GEOLOGICAL FEATURES34

Reservoir Rock34

Traps34
Anticline Trap35
Fault trap36
Thrust Fault36
Salt Dome Trap38
Stratigraphic Trap38

PETROLEUM RESERVOIRS40

Reservoir Properties40

Permeability40
Darcy’s Equation for linear incompressible fluid flow41 Porosity and hydraulic conductivity43

Sorting and porosity43
Types of porosity43
Measuring Porosity43

Water Saturation44

Determining Fluids in Place45

PETROLEUM RESERVES DEFINITIONS46

Proved Reserves47

Unproved Reserves48
Probable Reserves48
Possible Reserves49

Reserve Status Categories49
Developed Reserves49
Producing Reserves50
Non-producing Reserves50
Undeveloped Reserves50

SURFACE EXPLORATION METHODS51

Field Reconnaissance51

Aerial surveys51

Surface Geochemical Analysis51

GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION52

Seismic Surveys53
Seismic Section53
Seismic data acquisition54
Seismic data processing55

Marine Seismic acquisition56
Seismic records and the synthetic seismogram57

Gravity Surveys62

Magnetic Surveys63

STRUCTURE CONTOUR MAPPING65
Rules for Construction66
Example67

Subsurface Exploration Methods69

Rock Cuttings69

Reservoir Fluid Samples69

Mud Logs69

Cores70

Well Logs71

The Spontaneous Potential (SP) log71

TheResistivity log77

The "Porosity" logs80

Drill Stem Testing86

Appraisal Wells86

Reservoir Development Plan87

Development Wells87
Producing Wells87
Injection Wells88
Reservoir Pressure Control88
Observation Wells89

The Drilling Process90

Rigging up91
Blowout prevention94

Drilling95

Well Completion96

Casing String and Design Factors96
Conductor Pipe98
The Surface String98
Intermediate String98
The Production String98
Production Choke99

Running the casing99

Primary Cementing100

Squeeze Cementing101

Well Completion102

Conventional Single Zone Completion102
Open Hole Completion102
Single Zone Cased Hole Completion102

Conventional Multiple Completion103

Tubingless Completion104

Tubing104

Packers104

Wellheads104
Casing Gun Perforating107
Through tubing perforating107
Tubing Conveyed Perforating108

Production EQUATIONS109

Productivity Index109

Inflow Performance Relationship110

Formation Damage and skin factor110

Flow Efficiency110

Darcy Equation for Radial Flow111

Artificial Lift113

Gas Lift113
Continuous Gas lift114
Intermittent Gas Lift114
Plunger Lift115

Advantages of plunger lift115

Beam Pumping116

Electric Submersible Pump117

Progressive Cavity Pump118
PCP System Applications119

Reservoir Development Practices120...
tracking img