Basic Notes on English

Topics: Sentence, Noun, Word Pages: 3 (760 words) Published: August 13, 2011
BASIC ENGLISH NOTES
SENTENCE: A group of words which expresses a complete thought. A sentence must contain a subject and a finite verb.
There are four types of sentences:
(1).STATEMENTS (2). QUESTIONS (3). EXCLAMATIONS (5). COMMANDS (IMPERATIVES) Sentences can be classified as simple sentences, compound sentences, or complex sentences. A Sentence may be divided into a subject [ (who or what?)- the word that follows the subject is not the object, it is the complement i.e was, became etc.] and a predicate [ (the rest of the sentence) expands on the subject and begins with the verb. The predicate is divided into verb, diect/indirect object ]

PARTS OF SPEECH; Every word in a sentence is named according to it's function. NOUN: Naming word [ (common noun)- ordinary everyday things (proper noun)- names of people places etc. ( collective nouns)- names a collection or group (absract noun)- something which is not visible or tangible ]. PRONOUN: Stands in place of the noun i.e she, it etc. ADJECTIVE: Describing word.

VERB: Doing word.
ADVERB: Modifies the verb.
CONJUNCTION: Joining word.
PREPOSITION: 'small words' which relate phrases or words together. ARTICLE: 'a' 'an' or 'the' which precede nouns or adjectives.

FIGURES OF SPEECH: used to express ourselves imaginatively, visually and powerfully. Commonly classified as:

(1) COMPARISIONS:
(a) Simile: A direct comparison, contains the words 'as' or 'like'. (b) Metaphor: A comparision without the use of the words 'as' or 'like'. ( c) Personification: Gives human qualities to inanimative objects or abstract ideas. (d) Apostrophe: addressed or spoken to as if it were human.

(2)SOUND DEVICES:
(a) Alliterations: The repetition of consonant sounds at the beginning of words. It often highlights the expression of movement. (b) Assonance: The repitition of vowel sounds. ( c) Onomotopoeia: uses...
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