The term refers to the process of getting activities completed efficiently with and through other people. (Stephen P. Robbins, Rolf Bergman, Ian Stagg, 1997) Organization is a group of people with formally assigned roles who work together to achieve the stated goals of the group. (Gary Dessler, 2001) A manager is an individual in an organization who directs the activities of others. (Stephen P. Robbins, Rolf Bergman, Ian Stagg, 1997) In my opinion, management refers to the people who do it or the process to do it. It must be applies as the root or the base for an organization. Usually, the management related with the manager. An organization cannot run by themselves. So, the organization must have a management. We must alert that organization not necessarily just be business purpose. Even in a classroom, when we have a class monitor and assistant class monitor, it is still an organization. For example, organizations needn’t just be business firms; the definition applies equally well to colleges, local governments, and nonprofits like the American Red Cross. (Gary Dessler, 2001) Efficiency is the capability of producing desired results with a minimum of energy, time, money, materials, or other costly inputs. (R. Wayne Mondy, Shane R. Premeaux, 1993) Effectiveness is the capability of bringing about an effect or accomplishing a purpose, sometimes without regard to the quantity of resources consumed in the process. (R. Wayne Mondy, Shane R. Premeaux, 1993) Efficiency is concerned with means, and effectiveness with ends. (Stephen P. Robbins, Rolf Bergman, Ian Stagg, 1997) Efficiency and effectiveness are the two common important factors in a management. Efficiency more focuses on does the important things and right, while effectiveness is doing the right regardless, which, is more important. The benefit of efficiency is we can save or reduced our resources, at the same time, we can produce minimum service or products. Furthermore, when we can reduce our resources, our money or budget also can be reducing and the money can contribute for other purpose. The benefit of effectiveness is we can target how far the company can go in the industry or market that we involved in. We must have direction in our company.
Management functions refer to planning, organizing, leading and controlling. (Stephen P. Robbins, Rolf Bergman, Ian Stagg, 1997) Planning is the process of determining in advance what should be accomplished and how it should be realized. (R. Wayne Mondy, Shane R. Premeaux, 1993) Organizing is the process of delegating and coordinating tasks and resources to achieve objectives. (Robert H. Lussier, 1997) Leading is includes motivating subordinates, directing others, selecting the most effective communication channels, and resolving conflicts. (Rusinah Siron, 1999) Controlling is monitoring activities to ensure they are being accomplished, planned and correcting any significant deviations. (Rusinah Siron, 1999)
Planning, organizing, leading and controlling are the four basic functions in a management. Usually managers use this four important element to manage the work in an organization. All the functions are related with each other. If one of this functions is missing or the managers did not apply in the organization, the result maybe did not good as we aspect. Furthermore, the long term or short term of the goals in an organization did not realized. For example, Puan Suri wants to produce 500 sweetmeats. Indirectly, Puan Suri is the manager and applies the first function of management, which is planning. The ingredients must be arranged according to their expertise and set the time for one of the sweetmeats must be produced. That is what we call organizing. Sometimes the worker can get tired if the period of the working time is too long. Furthermore, the workers can get exhausted. Puan Suri applies the third functions, which is leading...