Basic Logic GatesBasic Logic Gates
All digital systems can be constructed by only three basic logic gates. These basic gates are called the AND gate, the OR gate, and the NOT gate. Some textbooks also include the NAND gate, the NOR gate and the EXOR gate as the members of the family of basic logic gates. The descriptions of the operations of these gates are listed below: AND gate

The AND gate is a circuit which gives a high output (logic 1) if all its inputs are high. A dot () is used to indicate the AND operation. In practice, however, the dot is usually omitted. OR gate

The OR gate is a circuit which gives a high output if one or more of its inputs are high. A plus sign (+) is used to indicate the OR operation. NOT gate
The NOT gate is a circuit which produces at its output the negated (inverted) version of its input logic. The circuit is also known as an inverter. If the input variable is A, the inverted output is written as . NAND gate

The NAND gate is a NOT-AND circuit which is equivalent to an AND circuit followed by a NOT circuit. The output of the NAND gate is high if any of its inputs is low. NOR gate
The NOR gate is a NOT-OR circuit which is equivalent to an OR circuit followed by a NOT circuit. The output of the NOR gate is low if any of its inputs is high. EXOR gate
The Exclusive-OR gate is a circuit which gives a high output if either of its two inputs is high, but not both. A encircled plus sign () is used to indicate the EOR operation. The functions of these basic building blocks are summarized by means of a Truth Table. The table shows all possible input/output combinations for two inputs.

...A logicgate is an elementary building block of a digital circuit. Most logicgates have two inputs and one output. At any given moment, every terminal is in one of the two binaryconditions low (0) or high (1), represented by different voltage levels. The logic state of a terminal can, and generally does, change often, as the circuit processes data. In most logicgates, the low state is approximately zero volts (0 V), while the high state is approximately five volts positive (+5 V).
There are seven basiclogicgates: AND, OR, XOR, NOT, NAND, NOR, and XNOR.
The AND gate is so named because, if 0 is called "false" and 1 is called "true," the gate acts in the same way as the logical "and" operator. The following illustration and table show the circuit symbol and logic combinations for an AND gate. (In the symbol, the input terminals are at left and the output terminal is at right.) The output is "true" when both inputs are "true." Otherwise, the output is "false."
AND gate
Input 1
Input 2
Output
1
1
1
1
1
The OR gate gets its name from the fact that it behaves after the fashion of the logical inclusive "or." The output is "true" if either or both of the inputs are "true." If both inputs are "false," then the...

...Digital Logic
•Introduction, Truth Tables and Boolean expressions
•LogicGates
•Combination of LogicGates
•Circuit tracing and Boolean expressions
•Creating Truth Table from a circuit
•Creating a Circuit from a Truth Table
•Basic Boolean Algebra
•Using Boolean Algebra for Circuit Simplification
•Practical Considerations
Digital Circuit versus an analog circuit
•Digital systems operate based on discrete information or signals,
were as an analog system relies on continuous information or
signals.
•Digital systems are binary in nature, they have two distinct states
as opposed to the infinite states available in an analog system.
•A Digital system accepts discrete inputs and generates discrete
outputs, such as On/Off, High/Low, True/False, or 1/0.
EXAMPLE 7.1
Car
Seat
Pressure
Sensor
Comparator
Enable
Accelerator
Seat
Belt
Voltage
Sensor
Possibilities: Y or N
Pressure
Comparator
A
Voltage Run
F=
B
F
Function of Truth Tables and Boolean expressions
Inputs
A
B
C
Output
Digital
Circuit
A Truth Table is used to describe
the relationships of inputs and
outputs in tabular form.
Input Combinations
Output
A B
C
F
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
F
A Boolean expression can be used
to describe the relationships of
inputs and...

...STUDY OF LOGICGATES
DATE :
AIM:
To study about logicgates and verify their truth tables.
APPARATUS REQUIRED:
SL No. | COMPONENT | SPECIFICATION | QTY |
1. | AND GATE | IC 7408 | 1 |
2. | OR GATE | IC 7432 | 1 |
3. | NOT GATE | IC 7404 | 1 |
4. | NAND GATE 2 I/P | IC 7400 | 1 |
5. | NOR GATE | IC 7402 | 1 |
6. | X-OR GATE | IC 7486 | 1 |
7. | NAND GATE 3 I/P | IC 7410 | 1 |
8. | IC TRAINER KIT | - | 1 |
9. | PATCH CORD | - | 14 |
THEORY:
Circuit that takes the logical decision and the process are called logicgates. Each gate has one or more input and only one output.
OR, AND and NOT are basicgates. NAND, NOR and X-OR are known as universal gates. Basicgates form these gates.
AND GATE:
The AND gate performs a logical multiplication commonly known as AND function. The output is high when both the inputs are high. The output is low level when any one of the inputs is low.
OR GATE:
The OR gate performs a logical addition commonly known as OR function. The output is high when any one of the inputs is high. The output is low level when both the inputs are low.
NOT...

...WORKING OF LOGICGATES
SUBMITTED BY:-
Shamil Choudhury
ROLL__________ No_____________
Karimganj Junior College Of Science
CONTENTS……..
TOPICS Page No
1. CERTIFICATE 1
2. INTRODUCTION 2
3. THEORY 3-4
4. EXPERIMENT 5-6
5. RESULTS 7
6. CONCLUSION. 7
7. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 8
8. REFERENCE 9
INTRODUCTION
A gate is a digital circuit that follows certain logical relationship
between the input and output voltages. Therefore, they are generally known as logicgates — gates because they control the flow of information. The five common logicgates used are NOT, AND, OR, NAND, NOR. Each logicgate is indicated by a symbol and its function is defined by a truth table that shows all the possible input logic level combinations with their respective output logic levels. Truth tables help understand the behavior of logicgates. These logicgates can be realized using semiconductor devices. Here we will investigate on the working of first three logicgates i.e. OR, AND, and NOT gate.
OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT
To demonstrate the working of logic...

...topic of logicgates has been done by DEBARPITA PANDE , a student of class XII-A in the academic year 2014-2015 under the guidance of Mr.S.K.MISHRA and is submitted to AISSCE Practical Examination conducted by CBSE at Kendriya Vidyalaya No.1 Salt Lake, Kolkata.
Signature of external examiner Signature of chemistry teacher
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
First and foremost, I would extend our deepest gratitude and sincere thanks to my kind and helpful physics teacher MR.S.K. MISHRA,who always encouraged me in my projects and its completion and in the rectification of my doubts.
I am extremely indebted and grateful to our Head of the Institution, Dr. SUMANLATA for providing me the sources, so that I can successfully complete out project.
I express my deep sense of gratitude to my parents for their love and support all over the way, giving us valuable solutions and new ideas.
I would also like to thank our lab assistant Mr. SUBHASH
I would like to appreciate the co-operation and vivacity offered by my colleagues and friends that made this project easy and feasible. They helped me in the domains of creativeness, designing, managing and in demonstration of new ways to accomplish my tasks.
DEBARPITA PANDE
Index
Bonafide certificate
Acknowledgement
Introduction
Aim of project
Materials required
Logicgates
Types of gates
The OR gate
The AND...

...Lab 1: Digital Logic Lab Introduction
Date of experiment: 1/30/2014
Date of Submission: 6/2/2014
Submitted by: Evgeniya Koshelyaevskaya
Group partners : Constantin Bercov, Rachel Revzin
College of Staten Island
Objective
1. To get familiar with the Cadet station and the basic equipment used for the experiment.
2. To investigate the behavior of the IC Chips obtained from the technician.
3. Compare theoretical data with the obtained experimental data to verify the logicgates.
Apparatus and Materials
1. CADET Station
2. Logic probe
3. Wires
4. IC Chips
a. 7400 (two-input NAND)
b. 7402 (two-input NOR)
c. 7404 (inverter)
d. 7408 (two-input AND)
e. 7432 (two-input OR)
f. 7486 (two-input XOR)
Discussion
1. After getting familiar with the station provided by the technician we located all the logic indicators on the right side and logic switches on the left side of the CADET as well as we noted the holes in the plastic strip near the switches and LED’s that were needed in order to connect the wires.
2. It is necessary to make sure that +5/+V switches near the logic indicators are set to +5 V which is default logic voltage levels.
3. Connection of logic switches with the logic indicators provides a low output before we turn on the switch and after we do the switch...

...Boolean logic
Student
Ali Alsaad: 1007194
Date: 20/2/2014
Table of Contents
1-History and introduction
2-Types of Logicgates
3-Uses of logicgates
4-Electronic circuits
5-Conclusion
Introduction
The term Boolean logic (Also known as Boolean algebra) honors George Boole. a self-educated English mathematician. He introduced the algebraic system initially in a small pamphlet, The Mathematical Analysis of Logic, published in 1847 in response to an ongoing public controversy between Augustus De Morgan and William Hamilton, and later as a more substantial book, The Laws of Thought, published in 1854. Boole's formulation differs from that described above in some important respects. For example, conjunction and disjunction in Boole was not a dual pair of operations. Boolean algebra emerged in the 1860s, in papers written by William Jevons and Charles Sanders Peirce. The first systematic presentation of Boolean algebra and distributive lattices is owed to the 1890 Vorlesungen of Ernst Schröder. The first extensive treatment of Boolean algebra in English is A. N. Whitehead's 1898 Universal Algebra. Boolean algebra as an axiomatic algebraic structure in the modern axiomatic sense begins with a 1904 paper by Edward V. Huntington. Boolean algebra came of age as serious mathematics with the work of Marshall Stone in the 1930s, and with Garrett Birkhoff's...

...A New Design Technique of Reversible Gates using Pass Transistor Logic
Md. Sazzad Hossain1, Md. Minul Hasan1, Md. Motiur Rahman1, A. S. M. Delowar Hossain1, Ziaul Haque2
1
Computer Science & Engineering, Mawlana Bhashani Science and Technology University 1 Santosh, Tangail-1902, Bangladesh University Grants Commission of Bangladesh Email: sazzad_101@yahoo.com, x.rajib.x@gmail.com
2
Abstract - In this paper, we propose a new design technique of reversible gates with N-MOS based pass transistor. The conventional reversible gates are based on C-MOS with transmission gates. We also compare the proposed reversible gates with the conventional CMOS reversible gates.
II. Background
In conventional (irreversible) circuit synthesis, one typically starts with a universal gate library and some specification of a Boolean function. It is widely known that an arbitrary Boolean function can be implemented using only NAND gates. A NAND gate has two binary inputs (say A, B) but only one binary output (say P), and therefore is logically irreversible.
Keywords
Reversible computing, Fredkin gate, Feynman gates, full adder, CMOS, NMOS, pass transistor.
2.1 Reversible Gates and Circuits
I. Introduction
Irreversible hardware computation results in energy dissipation due to information loss....