Basic Education

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Year 2013

by Christle C. Bautista 2-ALM

I. Introduction

“Education, being necessary to the State for the promotion of its welfare and the preservation of its life, must be so developed and directed in such a way as to conform to the philosophy of the people as a whole and not of any special interests and to realize the objectives of the entire race and not any particular sector of it. Private education may necessarily have certain goals which may not altogether be in consonance with those of the State-Unless we first ground our people in things which are common to us all, in the faithfulness to authorities of our land and in the loyalty to our common country, we shall be planting the seeds of division in our ranks , the fear and obedience to authorities over those of our government and loyalty to an organization other than of our own , noted by Enrique Sobrepena, a Constitutional Convention delegate”. 1












progress and growth. Thus , in this complex physical environment, education must be fully developed must be so as to balance with the drastic changes . The goals of


universal. Hence, everyone should have a common national

purpose in education. Education in the Philippines has been subjected to many reforms and changes to meet the increasing demands of the society .2 All the citizens must be fully equipped to be able to survive. Indeed, education plays a vital role in shaping an individual. In the past years , many educational laws and policies were

enacted. Nonetheless , several problems or issues still arise. In 2012, a new reform was established, namely, the K to 12 program . This program has two additional years in the basic education. The overall objectives of the K to 12 program are pertinent and beneficial to the growing demands of this present era .


Antonio Isidro, Trends and Issues in Philippine Education (Quezon City: Alemar-Phoenix Publishing House, Inc., 1972), 2. 2 Elena Tanodra, Philippine Educational System( Quezon City: Verh Educational Enterprise, 2003), 2.

In this globally competitive society, one must be equally competent in all aspects of life so as to meet the international standards . Thus , the newly implemented program aimed to produce graduates with adequate knowledge, talents , skills , and experiences .

However, in the Philippine setting, there are numerous problems that needed to be addressed more fundamentally.

II. Overview of the Philippine Educational System Education “Education, like any other terms , has various meanings and covers a number of aspects . Education, as defined in the Dictionary of Education, is (1) the aggregate of all processes by which a person develops ability, attitudes , and other forms of behavior of practical value, in society in which he lives; (2) the social process by which people are subjected to the influence of a selected and controlled environment (especially that of the school) so that they obtain social competence and optimum individual development.”3

Generally, education is a process of instructing, training and learning to ameliorate and to develop the proper knowledge, understanding, skills , and formation of character of each individual to be utilized in the real world and to be of help for the nation‟s economic , political, moral, and social development. Education has always played a vital role in attaining the general goals of national development and progress . Thus , the national leaders and all spheres of society are expected to give each individual all the chances of acquiring the aforementioned objectives that education aims .


Herman Gregorio, Introduction to Education in Philippine Setting(Quezon City: Garotech Publishing, 1976), 1.

Brief History of Philippine Education During the pre-Spanish period, there was no definite system of education in the archipelago....
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