INTRODUCTION TO WEAVING & KNITTING
Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibres, suitable for use in the production of textiles, sewing, crocheting, knitting, weaving, embroidery and rope-making.
TYPES OF YARN
• Spun yarn is made by twisting or otherwise bonding staple fibre together to make a cohesive(solid) thread. Twisting fibres into yarn in the process called spinning • Filament yarn consists of filament fibres (very long continuous fibres) either twisted together or only grouped together. • Texturized yarns are made by a process of air texturizing, which combines multiple filament yarns into a yarn with some of the characteristics of spun yarns.
Weaving is the textile art in which two distinct sets of yarns or threads, called the warp and the filling or weft (older woof), are interlaced with each other to form a fabric or cloth. The warp threads run lengthways of the piece of cloth, and the weft runs across from side to side.
TYPES OF WEAVE
The manner in which the warp and filling threads interlace with each other is known as the weave. Different types of weaves are as follows: • Plain weave • Satin weave & • Twill Weaving involves the interlacing of two sets of threads at right angles to each other: the warp and the weft.
plain weave also called tabby weave
or taffeta weave is strong and hardwearing, used for fashion and furnishing fabrics. In plain weave, the warp and weft form a simple criss-cross pattern. Each weft thread crosses the warp threads by going over one, then under the next, and so on. The next weft thread goes under the warp threads that its neighbour went over, and vice versa.
Structure of plain-woven fabric
TYPES OF PLAIN WEAVE
• Balanced plain weaves are fabrics in which the warp and weft are made of threads of the same weight (size) and the same number of ends per inch as picks per inch. • Basket weave is a variation of plain weave in which two or more threads are bundled and then woven as one in the warp or weft, or both. A balanced plain weave can be identified by its checkerboard-like appearance. It is also known as one-up-one-down weave or over and under pattern.
weave is one of the three important textile weaves. The satin weave is distinguished by its lustrous, or 'silky', appearance. Satin describes the way the threads are combined, and the yarn used may be silk or polyester, among others, giving different fabrics.
The satin weave is characterized by four or more cool fill or weft yarns floating over a warp yarn or vice versa, four warp yarns floating over a single weft yarn.
A twill weave can easily be identified by its diagonal lines. It is made by passing the weft thread over one or more warp threads and then under two or more warp threads and so on, with a "step" or offset between rows to create the characteristic diagonal pattern. Because of this structure, twills generally drape well.
Structure of a 2/2 twill
Structure of a 3/1 twill
• Weaving involves the interlacing of two sets of threads at right angles to each other: the warp and the weft.
The warp threads are moved up or down by the harnesses creating a space called the shed. The weft thread is wound onto spools called bobbins. By spacing the warp more closely, it can completely cover the weft that binds it, giving a warp faced textile such as rep weave. Conversely, if the warp is spread out, the weft can slide down and completely cover the warp, giving a weft faced textile, such as a tapestry.
An Indian weaver preparing his warp
By spacing the warp more closely, it can completely cover the weft that binds it, giving a warp faced textile.
Tapestry is a form of textile art and is composed of two sets of interlaced threads in such a way that the warp threads are set up under tension on a loom, and the weft thread is passed back and forth...
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