Basic Computer Hardware Notes

Topics: Floppy disk, Computer, Hard disk drive Pages: 7 (682 words) Published: August 11, 2015
Basic Computer Hardware
Notes – Copy All
AGP
□ The Accelerated Graphics Port is a high speed
connection to the motherboard for video cards.
□ Faster than a PCI card and doesn’t use the system
memory.
BIOS
The Basic Input/Output System controls the
computer’s basic operations and is responsible for
starting up the computer and hardware.
Bit
□ Short for Binary digit. It is the smallest unit of
information handled by a computer. One bit
expresses a 1 or a 0 in a binary numeral.
□ Or, it’s a true or false logical condition, and is
represented physically by an element such as a
high or low voltage at one point in a circuit or a
small spot on a disk magnetized one way or
another.

□ A single bit conveys little information a human
would consider meaningful.
□ A group of 8 bits, however, makes up a byte,
which can be used to represent many types of
information, such as a letter of the alphabet, a
decimal digit, or other character.
Bus Speed
Measured in MegaHertz (MHz) and determines how
fast the memory and CPU run.
Case
The case holds, cools, and protects the computer; the
bigger the better.
CD-ROM and CD-ROM Burner (CD-R/CD-RW)
□ This device reads data, audio, and video files from
a CD-ROM disc.
□ A burner can also save and even re-save data to a
CD-ROM.
CPU
The Central Processing Unit is the computer’s control
center: the “brain”.

DVD-ROM (DVD and DVD+/-R/DVD+/-RW)
It reads the same as a CD-ROM but is a super
compressed format (MPEG) that can store full-length
movies.
Floppy Drive
□ Magnetic storage medium. Sealed in a hard plastic
shell, the actual magnetic disk is flexible plastic
coated with a layer of magnetic film.
□ Typical floppy disks hold 1.4 megabytes of data
and measure 3.5 inches in diameter.
□ Floppy disk drives connect to the motherboard via
a dedicated cable.
□ Old floppy disks were 5 1/4 in.
Hard Drive
This stores all of the computer’s information and
retains the information when the computer is turned
off.
Keyboard
Allows the entry of data and executes programs.

Megabytes (MB)
□ It is used to measure the amount of space on a hard
drive or on a memory stick.
□ Gigabytes (GB) are more frequently used now.
Monitor
It is a high resolution TV-like tube that displays the
computer’s output.
Motherboard
This transfers data between all of the computer’s
components: the human nervous system.
Mouse
Allows the entry of data and executes programs the
easy way on screen and works well with graphics and
icons.
PCI
The “Peripheral Component Interconnect” is a highspeed connection to adding devices to a computer including SCSI cards, video, sound, modems, and
other PCI devices.

Power Supply
□ Converts power from a source into power the
computer can use.
□ 300 – 400 watt supply cases are best. Smaller
means more crashes.
□ Aids in the cooling of the computer.
Printer
It outputs data that is seen on the screen or from a
file.
RAM
□ Random Access Memory holds recently accessed
data from the computer for the CPU to have quick
access to.
□ It is gone once the computer is shut off.
Scanner
This device allows the reading of images and text.
SCSI

□ The “skuzzy” stands for “Small Computer Systems
Interface”.
□ This interface is the fastest connection to the hard
drive and is usually associated with the hard
drive(s).
Switch
□ A connecting device used on Ethernet networks.
Each computer on the Local Area Network is
connected to the switch with a dedicated segment.
□ The switch uses the MAC or ISP address to
determine which segment to forward frames to.
□ A frame is only forwarded to the destination rather
than broadcast to all computers.
□ This increases both the security and the efficiency
of the network.
□ Contrast with a Hub simply forwards all data
through the network.
USB
The Universal Serial Bus Port allows for the
connecting of many external devices to the computer.
Video Card

It transfers data from the...
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