Basic Cellular Functions and Biology

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7-1, 7-2 Cell Structures and Function
cell theory- all living things are composed of cells, cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things, new cells are produced from existing cells. prokaryote- smaller and simpler than eukaryotes, do not contain nuclei, are part of the Bacteria domain, are unicellular, are autotrophs or heterotrophs eukaryote- cells with nuclei and contain specialized structures called organells. All plants, animals and fungi are eukaryotes. Part of the Eukarya domain, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia kingdom. plant- eukaryote, cell walls of cellulose, contain chloroplasts, multicellular, autotrophs animal- eukaryote, no cell walls or chloroplasts, multicellular, heterotroph List the three components of the cell theory.

- All living things are composed of cells
Cells are the basic units of structure and function in living hings
New cells are produced from existing cells
Compare and contrast prokaryotes and eukaryotes in terms of size and structures.
- Prokaryotes are smaller than eukaryotes.
Eukaryotes have organelles and nuclei, while prokaryotes do not.

For each of the following cell structures, identify if they are in prokaryotes, eukaryotes, or both; also, identify if they are in plants, animals, or both; and describe the function.
- plasma (cell) membrane: In both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. It is a membrane barrier around all cells, allows for selective permeability. - cytosol/cytoplasm: In both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. It is the entire contents of the cell, excluding the plasma membrane and nucleus. - vesicles: In eukaryotes only (both plants and animals). They are transport “vehicles” within a membrane. - genetic material (DNA, RNA): In both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Contains genes, “instructions” for the cell. - nucleus: In eukaryotes only (both plants and animals). Contains genetic material and is within a membrane. - cytoskeleton: In both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Organizes contents of cell, aids in cell movement, helps maintain cell shape. - ribosome: In both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Produces proteins. - endoplasmic reticulum: In eukaryotes only (both plants and animals). It is a membrane, can be smooth or rough, produces materials for the cell membrane and modifies some proteins. - Golgi apparatus: In eukaryotes only (both plants and animals). It is a membrane, further modifies proteins. Packages and “ships” proteins to correct destinations. - vacuoles: In eukaryotes only (both plants and animals). Storage structures within a membrane. - lysosomes: In eukaryotes only (both plants and animals). Digests (breaks down) food and waste. Within a membrane. - mitochondria: In eukaryotes only (both plants and animals). Makes energy (ATP) by releasing it from food. Within a membrane. - chloroplast: In eukaryotes only (only plants). Converts the energy of the sun into chemical energy (sugars). Within a membrane. - cell wall: In prokaryotes and eukaryotes (only plants). Provides structure and support to the cell.

7-3 Movement Through the Membrane
plasma membrane- membrane barrier around all cells, allows for selective permeability lipid bilayer- component of the cell membrane, made of two layers of phospholipids phospholipid- lipid with a hydrophobic tail and hydrophilic head, makes up lipid bilayer amphipathic- both hydrophilic and hydrophobic (like a phospholipid) protein- component of the cell membrane ( channel protein and carrier protein) channel protein- protein that uses facilitated diffusion, allows molecules to directly pass through it (passive transport) carrier protein- protein that uses facilitated diffusion, carries molecule through membrane (passive transport) diffusion- process by which molecules tend to move from an area where they are more concentrated to an area where they are less concentrated (passive transport) selective permeability- only certain things can go in and out of the...
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