Banking Sector Reforms and NPA: A study of Indian Commercial Banks Meenakshi Rajeev H P Mahesh
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The Institute for Social and Economic Change, Bangalore
Institute for Social and Economic Change (ISEC) is engaged in interdisciplinary research in analytical and applied areas of the social sciences, encompassing diverse aspects of development. ISEC works with central, state and local governments as well as international agencies by undertaking systematic studies of resource potential, identifying factors influencing growth and examining measures for reducing poverty. The thrust areas of research include state and local economic policies, issues relating to sociological and demographic transition, environmental issues and fiscal, administrative and political decentralization and governance. It pursues fruitful contacts with other institutions and scholars devoted to social science research through collaborative research programmes, seminars, etc. The Working Paper Series provides an opportunity for ISEC faculty, visiting fellows and PhD scholars to discuss their ideas and research work before publication and to get feedback from their peer group. Papers selected for publication in the series present empirical analyses and generally deal with wider issues of public policy at a sectoral, regional or national level. These working papers undergo review but typically do not present final research results, and constitute works in progress.
BANKING SECTOR REFORMS AND NPA: A STUDY OF INDIAN COMMERCIAL BANKS
Meenakshi Rajeev and H P Mahesh 1 Abstract
The issue of non-performing assets (NPA), the root cause of the recent global financial crisis, has been drawing the attention of the policy makers and academicians alike. The problem of NPAs, which was ignored till recently,has been given considerable attention after liberalisation of the financial sector in India. This exploratory paper examines the trends of NPAs in India from various dimensions and explains how mere recognition of the problem and self-monitoring has been able to reduce it to a great extent. It also shows that public sector banks in India, which function to some extent with welfare motives, have as good a record in reducing NPAs as their counterparts in the private sector. The paper also discusses the role of joint liability groups (JLGs) or self help groups (SHGs) in enhancing the loan recovery rate.
It has been argued by a number of economists that a well-developed financial system enables smooth flow of savings and investments and hence, supports economic growth (see King and Levine, 1993, Goldsmith, 1969). A healthy financial system can help achieve efficient allocation of resources across time and space by reducing inefficiencies arising out of market frictions and other socio-economic factors. Amongst the various desirable characteristics of a well-functioning financial system, the maintenance of a few non-performing assets (NPA) is an important one. NPAs beyond a certain level are indeed cause for concern for everyone involved because credit is essential for economic growth and NPAs affect the smooth flow of credit. Banks raise resources not just on fresh deposits, but also by recycling the funds received from the borrowers. Thus, when a loan becomes non-performing, it affects recycling of credit and credit creation. Apart from this, NPAs affect profitability as well, since higher NPAs require higher provisioning, which means a large part of the profits needs to be kept aside as provision against bad loans. Therefore, the problem of NPAs is not the concern of the lenders alone but is, indeed, a concern for policy makers as well who are involved in putting economic growth on the fast track. In India due to the social banking motto, the problem of bad loans did not receive priority from policy makers initially. However, with the reform of the financial sector and the adoption of...
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