Bank Recapitalisation and Its Effect in the Nigeria Banking Industry

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CHAPTER ONE
1.0 INTRODUCTION
Banking reforms have been an on going phenomenon around the world right from the 1980s, but it is more intensified in recent time because of the impact of globalisation which is precipitated by continuous integration of the world market and economies. Banking reforms involve several elements that are unique to each country based on historical, economic and institutional imperatives. In Nigeria, the reforms in the banking sector preceded against the backdrop of banking crisis due to highly undercapitalization deposit taking banks; weakness in the regulatory and supervisory framework; weak management practices; and the tolerance of deficiencies in the corporate governance behaviour of banks (Uchendu, 2005). Banking sector reforms and recapitalization have resulted from deliberate policy response to correct perceived or impending banking sector crises and subsequent failures. A banking crisis can be triggered by weakness in banking system characterized by persistent illiquidity, insolvency, undercapitalization, high level of non-performing loans and weak corporate governance, among others. Similarly, highly open economies like Nigeria, with weak financial infrastructure, can be vulnerable to banking crises emanating from other countries through infectivity. Banking crisis usually starts with inability of the bank to meet its financial obligations to its stakeholders. This, in most cases, precipitates runs on banks, the banks and their customers engage in massive credit recalls and withdrawals which sometimes necessitate Central Bank liquidity support to the affected banks. Some terminal intervention mechanisms may occur in the form of consolidation (mergers and acquisitions), recapitalization, use of bridge banks, establishment of asset management companies to assume control and recovery of bank assets, and outright liquidation of non redeemable banks. Bank consolidation, which is at the core of most banking system reform programmes, occurs, some of the time, independent of any banking crisis. Irrespective of the cause, however, bank consolidation is implemented to strengthen the banking system, embrace globalization, improve healthy competition, exploit economies of scale, adopt advanced technologies, raise efficiency and improve profitability. Ultimately, the goal is to strengthen the intermediation role of banks and to ensure that they are able to perform their developmental role of enhancing economic growth, which subsequently leads to improved overall economic performance and societal welfare. The proponents of Bank consolidation believe that increased size could potentially increase bank returns, through revenue and cost efficiency gains. It may also, reduce industry risks through the elimination of weak banks and create better diversification opportunities (Berger, 2000). On the other hand, the opponents argue that consolidation could increase banks propensity toward risk taking through increases in leverage and off balance sheet operations. In addition, scale economies are not unlimited as larger entities are usually more complex and costly to manage (De Nicoló et al., 2003).

1.1 STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS
Prior to the recapitalisation exercise of bank brought about by the CBN 13-point reform agenda, which was announced on 6th July, 2004, the Nigerian banking system was highly oligopolistic with remarkable features of market concentration and leadership. For instance, Lemo (2005) notes that the top ten (10) banks were found to control: More than 50% of the aggregate assets;

More than 51% of the aggregate deposit liabilities; and
More than 45% of the aggregate credits.
Thus, the system was characterized by:
Generally small-sized fringe banks with very high overhead costs; Low capital base averaging less than $10million or N1.4 billion; Heavy reliance on government patronage (with 20% of industry deposits from government sources)...
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