Waqas Aleem Mughal
October 22, 2002
B. Causes: International Scenario
C. Causes: Political Situation
1. Attitude of Muslim League
2. Constitutional Deadlock
3. Absence of Strong Bond
4. Regional Politics
5. Provincial Elections 1954
6. Violation of 1956 Constitution
7. General Elections 1970
8. Boycott of National Assembly Session
9. Mujeeb’s Six Points
D. Causes: National Issues
1. Economic Backwardness of E. Pakistan
2. Domination of Hindus
3. Role of Hindu Teachers
4. Urdu – Bengali Controversy
5. Crushing of Democratic Institutions
E. Causes: Atrocities in East Pakistan
F. Causes: Indian Hostility
G. Critical Analysis
The Instrument of Surrender
Read Time: 12 Minutes
Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level: 12
* Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level Score: Rates text on a U.S. grade-school level. A score of 8.0 means that an eighth grader can understand the document.
The Emergence of Bangladesh
Waqas Aleem Mughal
October 22, 2002
Histories of nations are often marked with ruthless wounds. Time passes by but its scars never vanish. December 16, 1971 being the darkest day in the history of Pakistan ended with the creation of Bangladesh. It might have been only a diplomatic accident for our politicians but the nation was deeply shocked. It took away our national pride and moral prestige. This tragedy was the ultimate result of irresponsible and immature attitude of our leadership. The deep-rooted prejudice of the Hindus and international intrigues contributed to it. Pakistan no longer remained the largest muslim state. We lost 56% of our population. Some 90,000 troops and 3,000 civilians were taken as prisoners of war by India. Let us take an insight to understand the causes, which led to the break of Pakistan.
A. International Scenario
The separation of East Pakistan was a diplomatic failure. Military regime was reluctant to restore democracy. Democratic institutions were being eroded. Press and judiciary were in chains. Delay in transfer of power to legitimate and elected representatives led to political aggression. So, international community got an impression as if the military government was suppressing civil liberty and democracy. At that critical moment, UNO proposed to turn Pakistan into a federation of two autonomous wings but that too was ruled out. As the result Pakistan lost sympathies of democratic nations. Our diplomatic mission could not take them in confidence and Pakistan had to suffer from isolation.
This was the time when pro-Indian elements in East Pakistan had started propagating Bengali nationalism. They took the plea that the Bengali Muslims had their own language and culture different from that of Punjabis, Sindhis and others. They demanded autonomy and individual identity. Constitutional violations by the military rule made their demands justified. In these circumstances all democratic countries favored Bengali nationalism and instantly acknowledged Bangladesh soon after its creation.
B. Political Situation
Pakistan had been suffering from political instability since its creation. Government changed many hands after the death of Quaid-e-Azam and Liaqat Ali Khan. Politicians could not frame and promulgate any agreed constitution. All these factors aroused the anger of general public. Let us review several other factors that contributed to this national tragedy.
1. Stubborn Attitude of Muslim League Leaders
Many top ranking leaders of Muslim League displayed political immaturity. They claimed that they had a birthright to rule over Pakistan, as it was Muslim League...