DR. ABDUR RAHMAN CHEEMA
MUHAMMAD HUSSAIN SHAH
MUHAMMAD SHOAIB ISMAIL
SHEIKH HAMID BAHA AHMAD
ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR | BBA-4A
TABLE OF CONTENTS
INTERWOOD – AT A GLANCE........3
SELF-EFFICACY THEORY IN ACTION AT INTERWOOD.....4
Albert Bandura’s self-efficacy theory has been chosen by our group as the topic of our report. It has been derived from Bandura’s self-cognitive theory and is one of the contemporary theories of motivation. Today, managers can employ self-efficacy theory together with goal-setting theory to help their employees achieve high levels of organizational efficiency.
On the other hand we have opted for Interwood Mobel (Pvt.) Ltd. as the organization of our choice. In this report we would see, whether, the concept of self-efficacy is applied, implemented and practiced upon at Interwood or not.
Bandura’s self-efficacy theory can be defined as one's belief in one's ability to succeed in specific situations. The higher one’s self-efficacy, the more confidence one has in one’s ability to succeed. So, in difficult situations, people with low self-efficacy are more likely to lessen their effort or give up altogether, while those with high self-efficacy will try harder to master the challenge.
Virtually all people can identify goals they want to accomplish, things they would like to change, and things they would like to achieve. However, most people also realize that putting these plans into action is not quite so simple. Bandura has found that an individual’s self-efficacy plays a major role in how goals, tasks, and challenges are approached. It affects every area of human endeavor. By determining the beliefs a person holds regarding his or her power to affect situations, it strongly influences both the power a person actually has to face challenges competently and the choices a person is most likely to make. In addition, individuals high in self-efficacy seem to respond to negative feedback with increased effort and motivation, while those low in self-efficacy are likely to lessen their effort when given negative feedback.
Goal-setting theory and self-efficacy theory don’t compete with one another; rather, they complement each other. It is proven through research that when a manager sets difficult goals for employees, they will have a higher level of self-efficacy and set higher goals for their own performance because it communicates the manager’s confidence in them.
Furthermore, Albert Bandura proposes that self-efficacy can be increased in following four ways:
1. Enactive mastery
2. Vicarious modeling
3. Verbal Persuasion
According to Bandura, the most effective way of developing a strong sense of efficacy is through enactive mastery – that is, gaining relevant experience with the task/job. Performing a task successfully strengthens the sense of self-efficacy in an individual; however, failing to adequately deal with a task or challenge can undermine and weaken self-efficacy.
Vicarious or social modeling is the second most important source of increasing self-efficacy. According to Bandura, seeing people similar to oneself succeed by sustained effort raises observers' beliefs that they too possess the capabilities to master comparable activities to succeed. For example, if one’s friend slims down, it increases one’s confidence that one can lose weight, too.