Self-efficacy: the fluctuating, unique, emotional state each student uses to define their capability and likelihood for success; ultimately interacting with a variety of individual behavioral patterns such as organization and procrastination.
Modeling: provided by the teacher to positively effect student motivation and learning. Examples include the teacher or another student using a given cognitive strategy for solving an exercise or self-regulatory technique. Most successful when applied to those who perceive themselves as similar in competence.
Feedback: immediate and specific. Indicating student learning progress, in an effort to raise student self-efficacy beliefs and academic achievement. Stressing that success is within everyone's reach when effort and self-discipline are exerted.
Instructional Programs: Train students on the use of certain strategies to improve their performance, activate encoding and retention abilities, and demonstrate self-control of their learning such as procedures that have the student explain the systematic steps to solve an activity.
Sources that influence self-efficacy beliefs:
➢ Enactive mastery- experiences that provide feedback on learner’s own capabilities ➢ Vicarious experiences- provide comparative information about the attainments of others ➢ Verbal persuasion- provides the learner with information about what others believe he or she is capable of doing ➢ Physiological states- internal feelings by which learners judge their ability to engage in the task at hand
Related to self-efficacy beliefs are expectations of what actions will lead to desirable outcomes. Three major types of outcome expectations: ➢ Physical effects that accompany an action (e.g., pleasure or pain) ➢ Social effects (including approval, social recognition, and monetary compensation on the...
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