In 1963 the Bandura et al experiment was conducted. This was to examine the effect media violence, and social learning has on children. In this experiment there were five groups made up equal number of both genders. Four groups were shown either a live or filmed model acting aggressively towards a doll. The fifth group, the control group, were not. For reference the importance of the control group for Bandura was to:
A.) add significance and understanding on the influences model and violence had on child's behaviour. B.) in order to compare findings to children's behaviour absent of it.
After the demo all the children were given a selection of toys. Their findings were as follows:
All the children who witnessed a model - be it live or filmed, were then more aggressive in subsequent play.
In both genders, the aggression levels were further increased if the model witnessed was of the same gender as themselves.
An increase in aggression was witnessed in the filmed model category, however in both sexes higher uptake was witnessed after the live model demonstrations.
Male children had the highest aggression score overall, with much higher non imitive scores than the girls in every category.
From this we conclude that exposure to violence influences the aggressive behaviour displayed by children.
TMA 01 Part 2
This report aims to give the reader a better understanding of the direct link between social learning and the way it influences and affects children's behaviour. Research conducted by Bandura et al gives us a greater insight in to this.
In 1963 psychologists A Bandura and Ross and Ross decided to hold a series of experiments to get a more in depth view of social learning and to try and conclude whether children imitated aggressive acts once they had observed them. He also wanted to know if gender would affect the outcome of their results; and whether or not children would be more likely to imitate a live person or one depicted on a screen. This would help us to understand the effects violence in the media and computer games have on a young child's behaviour. They did this by studying the affects media and live model demonstrations had on a group of children aged between 3 to 6 years old. The children were split into four equal groups, consisting equally of both genders.
Group 1: Observed a live model behaving aggressively towards a Bobo doll.
Group 2: Observed a film of the live model behaving aggressively towards a Bobo doll.
Group 3: Observed a film of a 'fantasy figure' (cartoon) behaving aggressively towards a Bobo doll.
Group 4: Did not observe any aggressive behaviour towards a doll. This was to act as the control group to which the other 3 groups would be compared.
Afterwards each of the four groups were taken to a room full of toys. However, every time a child started to play with a toy, the experimenters would step in and tell them that those toys were the best toys and therefore being saved for other children. This was done to instigate aggression. The children would then be taken to a final room for approximately 20 minutes, and allowed to play freely with all the toys; which consisted of non aggressive toys, as well as the Bobo doll, mallet, gun and punch ball.
This was done to see to what degree the children would then copy their models aggressive behaviour. The experiment is now referred to as the 'Bobo doll studies'.
Results as follows:
Type of aggression/ Gender Live model female Live model male Filmed Female Filmed Male Control Imitative aggression girls 19.2 9.2 10.0 8.0 1.8 Imitative aggression boys 18.4 38.4 34.3 13.3 3.9 Non Imitative aggression girls 27.6 24.9...