Band Theory of Solids

Topics: Computer, Computer program, Programming language Pages: 31 (5192 words) Published: January 21, 2013


Kishore Kumar M UNIT-I


Contents :

➢ Introduction to computers –Computer Systems

➢ Computing Environments

➢ Computer Languages

➢ Creating and running programs

➢ Software Development method

➢ Algorithms

➢ Pseudo code

➢ Flowcharts

➢ Applying the Software Development Method

Introduction to Computers-Computer Systems:

COMPUTER : The term COMPUTER has various definitions. If put in a Laymen‟s language.

“A computer is a simple electronic machine that helps you solve problems”

and if put in a technical manner

“A computer is a high-speed electronic device which follows instructions and is capable of performing arithmetic and logic operations.”


The computer is “an electronic device for making calculations or controlling operations that are expressible in numerical or logical terms”.

Computer Programming By Raj Mohammed

A computer is a data processor. It can accept input, which may be either data or instructions or both. The computer remembers the input by storing it in memory cells. It then processes the stored input by performing calculations or by making logical comparisons or both. It gives out the result of the arithmetic or logical computations as output information. The computer accepts input and outputs data in an alphanumerical form.

Characteristics of a Computer: There are various characteristics of computers which make this advantages possible.

1.Speed: These can carry out instructions in less than a millionth of a second.

Ex: A computer can sort a set of thousand names in less than hundredth of a second.

2. Accuracy : Computers can do the calculations without errors and very accurately. Even when computer is making thousand calculations every second, not a single one will go wrong.

3. Diligence: Computers are capable of performing any task given to them repetitively. This property of computers to do the given task obediently without asking any questions is called Diligence. If any calculation has to be done a million times, a computer will do so with the same accuracy and speed.

4. Storage Capacity : Computers can store large volume of data and information on magnetic media.

5. Computers can carry out the tasks given to them using a small set of elementary instructions. These instructions are extremely simple.

Limitations of a Computer:

1. Lack of Commonsense: Computers can work as human beings but there is a lot of difference between them. The computer is only tool. It cannot THINK. It does not have common sense or intelligence as human have.

2. Inability to correct: A computer cannot correct wrong instructions. If there is a mistake in giving data to the computer the end results are wrong. Popularly this is termed as Garbage In – Garbage Out.

3. Dependence on Human instructions: A computer cannot generate any information on its own. It can only do what it is instructed or told to do.

Applications of Computers:

1. Business Applications: Business organizations were the major areas of Computerization. The first non-scientific use of computers concerned routine clerical work. Today most large and medium-sized companies are almost totally dependent on their computers for administrative functions.

Computer Programming By Raj Mohammed

Ex: Stock control, Personal Records, Financial Accounting, Word Processing...
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