1.1 Background of the Study
At present age there is a rapid increase of contaminants in the environment, but one of the major global concerns is the heavy metal concentrations in the environment as a result of man’s activities and since the biosphere is a closed system this heavy metals remains on earth and continuously increase as the human population increase. The acute and chronic effects of these heavy metals especially lead have been a worldwide concern. In fact in April 2000 the use of leaded gasoline was phased out in Metro Manila, such movement was partly due to the implementation of Clean Air Act of 1999 as well as the environmental concern of previous president Fidel V. Ramos .
Add an intro here about the presence and sources of lead and correlate it with the possibility of contaminating waters.
Conventional methods for metal removal in water include chemical precipitation, lime coagulation, ion exchange, reverse osmosis and solvent extraction . Although this methods for the removal of heavy metals from wastewaters, however, are often cost prohibitive having inadequate efficiencies at low metal concentrations, particularly in the range of 1 to 100 mg/L. Some of these methods, furthermore, generate toxic sludge, the disposal of which is a burden on the techno-economic feasibility of treatment procedures .
The search for new technologies involving the removal of toxic metals from wastewaters has directed attention to biosorption, based on metal binding capacities of various biological materials. Biosorption can be defined as the ability of biological materials to accumulate heavy metals from wastewater through metabolically mediated or physico-chemical pathways of uptake . Biosorption for the removal of heavy metal ions may provide an attractive alternative to physico-chemical methods .
The major advantages of biosorption over conventional treatment methods include low cost, high efficiency of metal removal from dilute solution, minimization of chemical and/or biological sludge, no additional nutrient requirement, and regeneration of biosorbent and the possibility of metal recovery .
In this present study, Musa sapientum L. peels, which are available in large quantities or from business operations may have potential to be used as low cost de-leading agent, as they represent unused resources, widely available and are environmentally friendly.
1.2 Significance of the Study
The researcher aims to generate a low-cost de-leading agent that may be beneficial to the following:
Readers –Generating awareness of the readers about the prevalence and increasing concern for heavy metal contamination of Philippine waters.
Researchers – To help them in developing an inexpensive and effective biosorbent that is easily available in large quantities in the Philippines and feasible economically for lead contaminated water.
Policy Makers – They would be able to create policies about waste water treatments in factories and as well as those who are engaged in the treatment facility of water consumed by the public like MAYNILAD.
1. 2 Statement of the Problems
Conventional methods of removing lead from the environment are said to be cost-prohibitive and generate toxic sludge. In this study the researches sought answers to the following problems:
1. Can the peels of Musa sapientum (L.) (Fam. Musaceae) reduce the level of lead ions from contaminated water. 2. What is the optimum pH of the solution for banana peels to exhibit maximum Biosorption capacity? 3. What is the effect of contact time on the Biosorption capacity of banana peels? 4. What is the effect of initial metal concentration of lead in the solution to the amount of lead...