Ballistic pendulum designed experiment
Aim: to investigate how the mass of the projectile affects distance on the motion of a wooden block it strikes Hypothesis: the heavier the projectile the further the distance will be covered by the wooden block Variables:
variablesIdentificationManipulation
IndependentMass of projectileThe four different masses will be used in different combinations DependentdistanceMeasured using tape measure
Controlled1.Height of retort stand
2.Release angle
3.The length of the wires
4.Mass of the wooden block1.The same stands will be used for all experiments 2.The angle will be a constant of 90 degrees
3.Same wires used for every trial
Method:
1.Place both retort stands on opposite table and suspend the projectile in between them using the two wires 2.Mark the starting point of the wooden block
3.Pull the string taught and suspend the projectile perpendicular to the horizontal 4.Release the projectile
5.Measure the distance travelled by the projectile and record it in the data table 6.Repeat the trials 5 times
7.Repeat step 1 but with the prescribed masses
8.Follow through to step 8 again
9.Data table:
trialWeight of projectile( kilograms) distance (meters)Average distance(DA in meters) 11.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
20.50
0.50
0.50
0.50
0.50
30.75
0.75
0.75
0.75
0.75
40.10
0.10
0.10
0.10
0.10
51.25
1.25
1.25
1.25
1.25
...Program:
Module:
Civil Engineering
Environmental Engineering and Management
SCE/SEV 4102
Experiment: BallisticPendulum Expected Duration: 2 Hours
Objectives:
1. To study the conservation of energy using collision example.
2. To predict the initial velocity of a particle using conservation of energy;
3. To calculate the average interaction force between two objects using ImpulseMomentum theory
Apparatus:
Figure 1. Horizontal projectile and elastic collision apparatus
Theory:
In this experiment you will again be examining a system that conserves both momentum and energy. The ballisticpendulum is a device often found at wellequipped shooting ranges. It is used to measure the speed of a bullet. The operation of the ballisticpendulum is simple. A block of wood of known mass is suspended from length of rope, forming a pendulum. A bullet of known mass is fired horizontally into the block of wood, causing the block with the imbedded bullet to rise. The height of the rise is measured and the speed of the bullet can be calculated.
Figure2. A schematic figure of project movement before and after collision
To calculate the speed of the projectile (vo) the conservation of momentum is used to predict the motion of the block immediately before and immediately after the collision of the bullet with the block. (Immediately after the collision...
...
The BallisticPendulum 
Determining the initial speed of a projectile 




THE BALLISTICPENDULUM
ABSTRACT
The experiment was carried out to determine the initial speed of a projectile:
i) by means of a ballisticpendulum.
ii) by measurements of the range and vertical distance of fall during its flight.
The initial speed for the ballisticpendulum was found to be 5.0551±0.0008m/s and the initial speed for the pendulum was found to be 4.72±0.02 m/s.
INTRODUCTION:
i) Ballisticpendulum
A ball of mass m and velocity v₀ nets a pendulum bob of mass M. The total mass (M + m) acquires a velocity v₀ just after impact, and subsequently rises by a height h. Using the law of conversion of momentum, mv₀ = (M + m)v velocity v₀ (when neglecting friction) is given by:
v₀ = (M+mm)2gl (1cosθ
θ
θ
l  h
l  h
l
l
h
h
12mv2= mgh (by law of conversion of energy)
mv2= 2mgh cosθ= adjacenthypotenuse
v2= 2gh lcosθ=lhl*l
v=±2gh lcosθ=lh
llcosθ=h
l1cosθ=h
* h=l1cosθ
* v=±2gh
= ±2gl(1cosθ) ………..(1)
mv₀ = (M + m)v ……….(2)
Subtracting 1 into 2 we get:
mv₀ = (M + m) ± 2gl1cosθ
v₀ = (M+mm) ± 2gl (1cosθ
ii) Projectile
The projectile with initial horizontal velocity v₀ is...
...experimenting with a PASCO pendulum setup and DataStudio. Students will gather measurements and data and apply them to various equations, and then compare the results they have received.
Introduction: The goals of this lab are as follows:
To allow students to gain understanding of angular velocity in terms of angular momentum and rotational kinetic energy. This is achieved by using a ballisticpendulum (pictured below)and DataStudio.
Compare the results of the experiment to what the results should be mathematically.
Materials:
PASCO ballisticpendulum
Metal Ball
Electric Scale
Stop Watch
Photogate
Computer with DataStudio
Ruler
Procedure:
1. Measure the mass of the ball
2. Place the ball inside the pendulum arm and find the mass, and the radius from the center of mass to the end of the arm
3. Calculate the period of oscillation using a stopwatch
4. Calculate moment of inertia using the equations shown in results
5. Set up the photogate so the launched ball can pass through it
6. Launch the ball ten times and find the average initial velocity
7. Calculate angular velocity
8. Launch the ball into the pendulum and record the angle it reaches using the angle measure on the pendulum
9. Repeat step 8 ten times and find the average angle
10. Calculate experimental angular velocity and compare to the number obtained in...
...22, 2014
BallisticPendulum Lab
Objective:
Determine the velocity of the projectile as it reaches the pendulum.
Hypothesis:
Firstly, we guess that the outcome of the velocity of the projectile is 6.3 meters per second [left].The formulas we use to find the final velocity of the projectile are Trigonometry, Kinetic and Potential Energy, and Momentum.
Mass of the pendulum = 80.0g
Mass of the ball = 7.64g
Length of the string = 21cm
Equipment:
Ballisticpendulum device
Metal ball projectile
Procedure:
1. Ensure that the device is balanced so that the ball will shoot directly into the pendulum.
2. With the pendulum motionless, the red bar should be gently touching against the back of the pendulum.
3. Pull back on the launcher (like a pinball machine) so that it locks into one of the grooves.
4. Insert the ball in the front of the launcher. It will not go all the way in.
5. Push the launcher release lever (the thumb release is near the base).
6. Measure the angle that the red bar shows.
7. Repeat these steps at the same speed setting four more times.
Observations:
Trial
1st Angle
2nd Angle
3rd Angle
1
17.0
21.0
27.0
2
16.5
20.5
26.0
3
17.0
21.5
27.0
Analysis:
Error:
Environmental factors –We encountered some error due to environmental factor...
...
PendulumExperiment
Equation Description:
the equation of pendulum represents (g) as gravity, (L) as length, (t) as Time. In which we are going to calculate the acceleration due to gravity.
Aim:
To determine the value of gravity (g), the acceleration due to gravity.
And to investigate how the period time (t) of an oscillating Pendulum, varies with the length of the string.
Equipments needed during theexperiment:
String (fishing line)
Protector
Stop watch
Retort Stand
Scale
Scissor
Method:
We used the corner of the table and placed the “Retort stand”.
Laid the book on the retort stand to make it stable.
Use the string (fishing line) and tied up one end with retort stand and another end with the ball.
Measured the length of the string with the ruler.
Used the protector to measure the angle so that pendulum be on accurate angle. To measure the time we used stopwatch.
Hypothesis:
As we were not aware of the angle and length of the string we supposed hypothesis to be our prediction. As in trail 1 we supposed angle as 150 degree and the length 61.5 cm. In trail 2 we supposed angle 160 degree and the length 31.6 cm, and in trail 3 we supposed angle 100 degree and the length 31.6 cm.
Data:
Trial 1: string (fishing line) 61.5cm, 150 degree angle, time for 15 oscillations = 17.72 seconds
Solution:
G= {4 x (3.14)^2 x L} / (t)^2
G= {4 x (3.14)^2 x (0.615)} /...
...against T2 clearly shows a linear relationship, in agreement with the theory. The actual line of best fit does not go through the origin(0,0) which suggests a systematic error in our experiment. When graphing a line of best fit, we find a line with a gradient of 4.128. Our value for ‘g’ can be calculated by dividing 4π2 with the gradient of the line of best fit;
g = 9.56 m/s2 ± 0.6
Comparing our calculated value for the gravitational acceleration ‘g’ with the accepted theoretical value gives us an error of 2.5%, well within the error margins that we calculated. This is a reasonable result, given the equipment and the time constraints that we faced. Looking at our graph, we cannot identify any outliers. However, our data values suggest a line of best fit that does not pass through the origin. When we do fit a linear regression onto our data values, that passes the origin, we see that the line does not ‘hit’ all the horizontal error bars (the uncertainty in the length). This may suggest a systematic error in the measurement of the length of our pendulum. Furthermore, this experiment had to be carried out in about one hour, with very basic equipment. This, perhaps, contributed to the slight difference in the value for ‘g’ that we found.
Reference:
1. Practical Physics. 2009. The Swinging Pendulum [Online] Updated 22 October 2007. Available at http://www.practicalphysics.org/go/Experiment_480.html [Accessed 8...
...â€ƒ
Hunter Croak
March 31, 2011
Criminalistics 2
Research Paper
Ballistics
Bullets traveling over two thousand feet per second and having more energy than one normal person can perceive. Can you imagine tracking where, how, when, and what from angle this bullet was shot. Ballistic scientists can. Ballistics is the study of any projectile used as a weapon. This can certainly make or break a case involving a gun. Greatballistic scientists can even provide how far the bullet was shot from before it makes contact with the target. To me this is one of the most important tools in a case where a firearm is used.
The definition of ballistics is very simple, the study of projectiles from a weapon, mainly referring to bullets out of a gun. That is a dulled down definition. My definition is a little lengthier in depth. Forensic ballistics includes the examination of bullets and firearms in an attempt to identify particular weapons used at any particular time. Guns and bullets leave small signs behind when fired, which professional ballistic scientists can pick apart and define what gun, bullet, energy, and even charge of the casing. This makes ballistic scientist one of the most important keys on a law enforcement agency.
Pistols and rifles are categorized by what the inside diameter of the barrel measures. This is called caliber. An...
...Ballistics
Gun violence is a serious problem in today’s society and understanding how guns and their ammunition work is important to understand to be able to solve crimes. One of the pillars of forensic investigation is the science of ballistics. Wikipedia defines ballistics as the science of mechanics that deals with the flight, behavior and effects of projectiles (Wikipedia). Understanding how the bullet with react when striking various surfaces is crucial to any investigator. With 68% of all U.S. homicides that were committed in 2011 with firearms, it is evident ballistics is an important way to solve these crimes (Crime in the US). To understand ballistics you need to understand rifling, identifying features of fired ammunition, and the examination of the ammunition and firearms.
Helical grooves known as rifling are cut into the bore of a barrel of a firearm during production to increase the accuracy of that firearm. When the gun is fired, these grooves cause the bullet to spin as it travels the length of the barrel and thus stabilize the bullet during flight. At the same time, the expansion of the fired cartridge and the high pressures propelling the bullet through the bore of the barrel press and scrape the bullet against the rifling as it heads toward the muzzle. The fired bullet, as a result, will bear the negative impressions of the grooves in a rifled barrel; these marks are described by...
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