Balanced scorecards in managing higher education institutions: an Indian perspective Venkatesh Umashankar and Kirti Dutta
Institute for International Management and Technology, Haryana, India Abstract
Purpose – The paper aims to look at the balanced scorecard (BSC) concept and discuss in what way it should be applied to higher education programs/institutions in the Indian context. Design/methodology/approach – The paper is based on extant literature on the balanced scorecard concept per se, as well as applications of BSC in higher education as reported by other researchers. Findings – The BSC approach offers an institution the opportunity to formulate a cascade of measures to translate the mission of knowledge creation, sharing and utilization into a comprehensive, coherent, communicable and mobilizing framework – for external stakeholders and for one another. Research limitations/implications – In the absence of any speciﬁc Indian case study, the possible impact could only be conjectured or deduced. Practical implications – A useful model is proposed that can be adapted with appropriate modiﬁcations to the management of tertiary institutions of education in India, whether it be a university, afﬁliate college, autonomous institution or private educational institution. Originality/value – In the absence of evidence of the application of BSC to the educational institutional domain in India, the current paper may be a starting-point for a debate and possible strategies to implement BSC methodology in this area. Keywords Balanced scorecard, Strategic management, Higher education Paper type Conceptual paper
International Journal of Educational Management Vol. 21 No. 1, 2007 pp. 54-67 q Emerald Group Publishing Limited 0951-354X DOI 10.1108/09513540710716821
Introduction Organizational failure can usually be traced to deﬁcient strategic planning, poor organization structure, recruitment and retention of staff, ineffective or nonexistent internal control, and a lack of communication and feedback. On a more operational level, poor budgeting and inattention to cash-ﬂows are also often the cause of organizational failure. Educational institutions of higher learning are no different, it is just that in the Indian context, traditionally these institutions have been controlled by the government and hence at times strategic management and its derivative tenets are not so visible in the initiation and operation of such institutions. Heimerdinger (2002) indicates a need for training perceived by non-proﬁt managers that manifests the traditional concerns of human services professionals who ﬁnd themselves promoted into managerial positions without the beneﬁt of traditional formal training in management – referring to those tasks usually deﬁned by such activities as planning, organizing, motivating and controlling and feedback. Subtending all of these is the need for leadership. If we juxtapose the above comment with the fact that educational institutions of higher learning in India, traditionally have been “administered” (managed) in a way in which academic staff
have been given apex positions in the administrative hierarchy, it does highlight this need for developing managerial capacity. Universities world-over are facing the challenge of being centres of excellence for teaching as well as research. On one hand universities are increasingly being required to teach ever increasing number of students in increasing numbers of specialisations and disciplines, and on the other they are being asked to pay more attention to quality of teaching and educational programs (Smeby, 2003). This again indicates at the requirement to re-look at the ways institutions of higher learning are to be managed. The current paper looks at focusing attention on one of the contemporary tools of management namely, the balanced...