Balance Sheet and Public Sector Reform

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Unit 5007
Financial control
1.1 Assess the relationship(s) between a financial system or function and other systems or functions in an organisation Answer: Information and records are of critical importance to the functioning and controlling of systems in general, including organisational systems. Given the central importance of information and records to systems operation, including public sector organisations and the societies they exist to govern, we should not be surprised to learn that public sector reform efforts that overlook the information component often fail to meet their immediate objectives and the longer-term goal of establishing a framework for good governance. Efforts to improve the management of public sector records in many countries have been hampered by a gap between the National Archives and the government’s record-creating departments. The result has been that most of the records in the custody of the Archives are over forty years old, while the records in government departments remain unmanaged. Some National Archives have inspecting powers, but there are few professionals trained to manage current records. Moreover, there are rarely systems in place to ensure that semi-current and non-current records are transferred to secure accommodation or appropriately destroyed. The introduction of computerized systems, often a key part of public sector reform projects, is compounding existing record-keeping problems. These computerized systems are using information that may be seriously flawed and based on collapsed paper-based systems. It is because effective management of records is so crucial to achieving public sector reform objectives, which lead to good governance, that restructuring must encompass the management of records. Restructuring of records and archives management processes must be seen as an integral part of the restructuring of core government processes to ensure the success of public sector reform efforts. 1.2 Describe the systems of accounts and financial statements used to control a financial system Answer: Financial statements are the primary means of communicating financial information to parties outside the business organization. The four basic financial statements: Balance Sheet

Income Statement
Statement of Cash Flows
Statement of Retained Earnings
ACCOUNTING SYSTEMS
In small enterprises there can be different kinds of accounting systems such as external, internal and tax accounting. Annex 3 summarises data per Member State concerning accounting system requirements for small enterprises. On the basis of this data, the following descriptions of accounting systems are given: Internal accounting

Internal accounting, also called management accounting is based on the enterprise’s internal accounting procedures and recorded accounting information. Internal accounting is intended for managers within organizations, to provide them with the economic basis to make informed business decisions that would allow them to be better equipped in their management and control functions. For example, managers may want to be able to assess the contribution or the profitability of different products or services that they supply by comparing the revenues and costs that they generate. Unlike external accounting information, internal accounting is usually confidential and it is accessible only to the management. In most cases, small enterprises do not use internal accounting at all due to their size. Internal accounting is normally not governed by national legislation. However, in some Member States internal accounting is compulsory even for small enterprises. External accounting

External accounting, also called financial accounting is concerned with the preparation of financial statements for decision makers, such as the owners, suppliers, banks, governments and its agencies, customers and other stakeholders outside the enterprise. External accounting makes use of the...
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