THE NEW LITERATURE -- NEW YORK AND THE KNICKERBOCKER GROUP
With the turn of the century, the American young republic entered upon an era of (1) expansion and development which can be described only as marvelous. The rapid progress in the settlement of the West, the influx of foreign immigration, the growth of the larger cities, extension of (2) transportation systems by construction of canals and government roads, application of the new inventions employing the power of steam in river navigation and on railroads, -- these features (3) of American progress during the first fifty years in our first completed century of national existence can be here but thus briefly summarized. It is unnecessary to attempt (4) a full historical outline of that period growth and change except to note that coincidentally with this expansive period of material prosperity and growth, our national literature entered upon what we may not inaptly term (5) its golden age – the age of its best essayists, novelists and poets, (6) our real American men of letters
There were (7) evidences of literary activity in Boston, in Philadelphia, and in New York. Little groups of literati, as they liked to call themselves, mightily interested in the development of a national literature, gave an atmosphere that was helpful to literary effort; and they themselves accomplished what could be accomplished by interest, (8) patriotism and industry when joined with talent, modest if not of only average standard. They are the (9) Knickerbockers writers, so called (10) in respect to the old Dutch traditions of Manhattan, the spirit of which was directly inherited by most of them, and the influence of which appeared to some extent in their work.
a. evidences of
b. in respect to the old Dutch traditions
d. expansion and development
e. a full historical outline of that period growth
f. patriotism and industry...