Part I: Background Research on Criminology
Criminology is a term used for the study of criminal behavior including factors and causes of crime. This study also deals with the social impact of any crime of the criminal itself and on the victim and his or her family. There are two major classifications in this discipline of social science. First is classicistic approach while the other is known as positivist approach of criminal study. The positivist approach of criminology is referred to the state in which a person loses its mental control and will commit a crime. In this discipline the factors of inner and outer circumstances are believed to be responsible for losing control from mind. On the other hand the classicistic approach argues with the factors suggested by positivist. According to this discipline every person has the ability to make a decision under any circumstances this is not to be believed that a person has loses his decision making ability.
To understand criminal justice, it is necessary to understand crime. Most policy-making in criminal justice is based on criminological theory, whether the people making those policies know it or not. In fact, most of the failed policies (what doesn't work) in criminal justice are due to misinterpretation, partial implementation, or ignorance of criminological theory. Much time and money could be saved if only policymakers had a thorough understanding of criminological theory. At one time, criminological theory was rather pure and abstract, with few practical implications, but that is not the case anymore. For example, almost all criminologists today use a legalistic rather than normative definition of crime. A legalistic definition of crime takes as its starting point the statutory definitions contained in the penal code, legal statutes or ordinances. A crime is a crime because the law says so. Sure, there are concerns about over...
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