Background report on gender issues in India: key findings and recommendations Short report Report commissioned by the Overseas Development Administration (DFID), UK
February 1995 (revised)
The authors gratefully acknowledge support for the preparation of this report from the Overseas Development Administration (DFID), UK. However, the views expressed and any errors or omissions are those of the authors and not of the DFID, UK.
BRIDGE (development - gender) Institute of Development Studies University of Sussex Brighton BN1 9RE, UK Tel: +44 (0) 1273 606261 Fax: +44 (0) 1273 621202/691647 Email: email@example.com Website: http://www.ids.ac.uk/bridge ISBN: 1 85864 167 5 © Institute of Development Studies, Brighton
CONTENTS PAGE LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS GLOSSARY EXECUTIVE SUMMARY KEY RECOMMENDATIONS FOR DEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCE 1. 2. INTRODUCTION: contemporary contexts for the gender question THE ECONOMY, STRUCTURAL ADJUSTMENT AND GENDER 2.1 Women and men in the Indian economy 2.2 Employment status and wages by gender 2.3 Gender and poverty 2.4 Structural adjustment and gender: employment effects 2.5 Structural adjustment and gender: income and consumption effects CASTE, COMMUNALISM AND GENDER 3.1 Everyday caste in India 3.2 The emergence of caste as a national political issue 3.3 Caste and gender 3.4 Tribals and gender 3.5 Gender and communalism GENDER BIAS IN SOCIAL SERVICES: health and family planning, water, sanitation and housing 4.1 Social sector policy, funding and biases 4.2 Health institutions and health policy 4.3 Gender and health 4.4 Gender bias in access to health care 4.5 Family Planning 4.6 HIV/AIDS 4.7 Water, sanitation and housing GENDER BIAS IN SOCIAL SERVICES: education 5.1 Women in educational policy 5.2 Trends in enrolment, retention and literacy 5.3 Differential access to education by religion and caste 5.4 Constraints and opportunities for female education THE STATE, NGOs AND THE MAINSTREAMING OF GENDER 6.1 The women’s movement in India 6.2 Government policy on women and the national machinery 6.3 Women in development schemes 6.4 NGO approaches to gender issues 6.5 Gender training 6.6 Women’s participation in panchayati raj ANNEX 1: Terms of reference 1 3 3 5 6 8 12 13 14 15 16 18 19 21 21 23 25 28 29 30 32 34 34 35 39 40 43 43 46 48 50 53 55
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS CEDAW DWCRA EGS GDP GER HIV/AIDS IDA IRDP ISST JRY LHV NCERT NFE NGO NIRD NRY OBC PHC SAMATA SIAAP STD TLC UMA UN WDP WHO WID Convention for the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women Development for Women and Children in Rural Areas (Government programme) Employment Guarantee Scheme (Maharashtra) Gross Domestic Product Gross Enrolment Ratio Human Immunodeficiency Virus/ Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome International Development Association Integrated Rural Development Programme Institute for Social Studies Trust Jawahar Rozgar Yojana (government wage employment scheme in rural areas). Lady Health Visitor National Council for Educational Research and Training Non-formal education Non-government organisation National Institute for Rural Development (Hyderabad) Nehru Rozgar Yojana (government wage employment scheme in urban areas) Other Backward Caste Primary Health Centre Women’s organisation South India AIDS Action Project Sexually Transmitted Disease Total Literacy Campaign Utsashi Mahila Abhyudaya (information and resource centre on women and panchayati raj in Bangalore) United Nations Women’s Development Programme World Health Organisation Women in Development
GLOSSARY agarbatti arrack bidi Dalit madrassa Mahila Samakhya Mahila Mandals Other Backward Castes panchayati raj purdah sarpanches sathin sati Scheduled Tribe Scheduled Caste incense stick Home made country liquor hand-rolled cigarette Self-chosen name for ‘untouchables’; literally ‘downtrodden’ Traditional Muslim religious school Empowerment and development programme aimed at women Women’s centres set up after by the...