Background of the Study- Feeding Method and School Readiness

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The research study primarily aims to determine which feeding method would play an important role in the cognitive development of a child that will later on reflect to his or her performance in the school readiness test that measures the level of cognitive development as well as intelligence that dictate child’s readiness for formal education in the first grade. Readiness factors are required for learning of any kind. Youngsters beginning formal education in the first grade differ considerably in such factors. It is important that the teacher know as much as possible about every entering student’s “readiness” for learning¬¬- particularly about any factors that might interfere with the learning process. The School Readiness Test (SRT) is a group of tests intended to be given by the classroom teacher upon completion of entire kindergarten level or before the third full week of first grade. It is not recommended for those students who are repeating the first grade. Eight separate tests are included in the School Readiness Test namely vocabulary, identifying letters, visual discrimination, auditory discrimination, comprehension and interpretation, number knowledge, handwriting ability, developmental spelling ability. (PSU-OSA, 2012) “Ready to Learn” became a national mantra in 1991, when the National Education Goals Panel adopted as its first goal that “by the year 2000, all children will enter school ready to learn.”This panel identified readiness in the child as determined by a set of interdependent developmental trajectories. One of its important component parts is consists of language development, including listening, speaking, and vocabulary, as well as literacy skills, including print awareness, story sense, and writing and drawing processes; and general knowledge and cognition, including sound-letter association, spatial relations, and number concepts. (PEDIATRICS Volume 121, Number 1, April 2008)

Cognitive development or cognition, as one of the important aspects of SRT, refers to processes of how a person perceives, thinks, and gains understanding of his or her world through the interaction of genetic and learned factors. Intelligence is one of the areas of cognitive development. It is the ability to comprehend or understand. It is basically a combination of reasoning, judgment, imagination and memory; each of these faculties relies upon the others. It is not an entity within a person but a combination of cognitive skills and knowledge. (Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine, 2008) Likewise,intelligence has been defined by Wikipedia dictionary in many different ways- including, but not limited to abstract thought, or the process by which higher concepts are derived from the usage and classification of literal;understanding, or the mental process of a person who comprehends with personal interpretation;reasoning, or the process of forming conclusions, judgments, or inferences from facts; and problem solving, or the process of working through details of a problem to reach a solution.

In connected to the earlier, intelligence quotient, or IQ, is a score derived from one of several standardized tests designed to assess intelligence like the SRT. Moreover, IQ test can be tested through a set of problems or tasks posed to assess an individual's innate ability. Perception, memory, and reasoning may also be considered different basic abilities. These abilities are the ones that are usually examined by intelligence tests like written exams and other intelligence test’s tools. (Mosby's Medical Dictionary, 2009) IQ scoring is based on the concept of "mental age," according to which the scores of a child of average intelligence match his or her age, while a gifted child's performance is comparable to that of an older child, and a slow learner’s score are similar to those of a younger child. Similarly, SRT also has scores related to gifted ready, superior ready, average...
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