Background of Human Resource Management

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Background of HRM

Early studies on human resource management can be traced under the field of the studies of personnel management (Scott, 1915; Asher, 1972; Campbell et al., 1970). However a shift from personnel management to HRM occurred in the early 1980’s.

Some authors (Storey, 1994; Torrington et al., 2008) argue that human resource management has two meanings. According to one of them, human resource management covers the same activities that personnel management used to before the shift in the 1980’s.

Following another meaning however, personnel management and human resource management differ. Legge (1995) argues that the difference between the two is very thin and is based on the way people are treated, as the main actor for personnel management, or as a resource part of the company’s strategy for human resource management.

Definition

❖ Storey (1994) defines HRM as “a distinctive approach to employee management which seeks to achieve competitive advantage through the strategic deployment of a highly committed and capable workforce, using an integrated array of cultural, structural and personnel techniques”.

❖ Human resource management is the management of an organization’s workforce or human resources. It is responsible for the atrraction, selection, training, assessment and rewarding of employees, while also overseeing organizational leadership and culture and ensuring compliance with employment and labour laws. (Wikipedia)

❖ Armstrong (2006, p.4) defined it as a strategic and coherent approach of an organisation's most valued assets. - the people working there, who individually and collectively contribute to the achievements of the objectives of the business.

❖ HRM is the organizational function that deals with issues related to people such as compensation, performance management, organization development, safety, wellness, benefits, employee motivation, communication, administration, and training.

❖ HRM is also a strategic and comprehensive approach to managing people and the workplace culture and environment. 

Practices of Human Resource Management

It implies customary way of operations and behavior, translating idea into action and knowledge of how something is usually done.

❖ Organisational Design

▪ Involves interactions between people

▪ Technology and the tasks to be performed in context with the organisations objectives

▪ Goals and strategic plan (e.g. job design, team building, restructuring etc.)

▪ The processes used to shape the organizational structure 

❖ Staffing

▪ Recruitment

▪ Employee orientation

▪ Selection , promotion and termination processes [pic]

▪ Performance management including individual assessments

▪ Improving and measuring work performance.

❖ Employee and Organisational Development programmes.

▪ Maintain and improve employee skills (conceptual understanding, skill building, attitude change, team building, problem solving).

▪ Types of participants (new employees, first-line supervisors, middle-level managers, top executives).

▪ Delivery of training programs (e.g. internal vs. external faculty and facilities, use of line managers).

Performance Management

• Types of standards set for employees or units

(e.g. behavior-focused vs. outcome-focused, short-term vs. long-term, explicit vs. implicit, linked to individual vs. strategic performance and plans).

• Types of performance review feedback sessions

(e.g. frequency, nature of feedback, monitoring of feedback sessions, forms used, formal reporting systems in existence, managerial accountability).

• Processes used to ensure that feedback occurs continually

(e.g. quarterly reviews).

• Sources of data for...
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