Ba English 1st Semester Manipal University

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Assignment.

1.Enumerate how language evolved through memes.
Ans.
A1.Introduction:
Amoung all the animal kingdome, only we humens are having an advanced system of communication system between indiveduals. We don’t have a ny clear ida whetere the language was existed before the writing system. So it remains difficult to tracd the accurate history of language. It is belived that language first apperared between 30,000 and 100,000 years ago, but the qustina still remains, how did language evolved? Here I will be enumeration how language evolved though adaption and monst importantly memes. A.2.1) Language as an adaption

Memes are closely related to adaptions. The main stream view is that language is an adaption, evolved in resonse to some selection p0ressure toward improved communication between humans. Stean Pinker ,one of the many scholar who believe in language as an adaption. There are many different adaptionlist explanations, for the evaluation of language, there must have been a need of improved communication between hunters, and pople with the same group etc etc. The homosapinace used oral expressions for sharing infromations. A improved way of communication was very much need for the survaival of the tribe, to inform them regarding the danger, and poisonous plant and even about the animal attacks. And they have used diffent sounds, and actions, even imitation the sound of attacking animals etc, to improve the communication. And these calls and Sounds have influenced the cerebral cortex, and became a part of human understading and reactions. A.2.2) Lanugage evoulution and memes

Defenition of Meme.
1.Dawkins calls it an imitable behavior,
2.A meme is "an idea, behavior or style that spreads from person to person within a culture." A meme acts as a unit for carrying cultural ideas, symbols or practices, which can be transmitted from one mind to another through writing, speech, gestures, rituals or other imitable phenomena. Supporters of the concept regard memes as cultural analogues to genes in that they self-replicate, mutate and respond to selective pressures. There are several reason that we can see language might purely evolved as a biological adaption. But there is a different theory by Susan Blackmore; Meme mechanism, she proposed that it evolved for the sake of being a characteristic of a culture, not as a adaption for the benefit of genes. Blackmore explains that memes first came into existence with the advent of true imitation in humans, which allowed memes to spread through populations. Recalling that fecundity, or proudction of new copies, is essential to a replicator, she proposes that language came into existence as a mechanism for improving the fecundity of memes. Sound transmission has many advantages for the purpose - sounds can be heard by multiple listeners and can be used even at night. After sound transmission (proto-language) came into existence, the "digitalization" of language into discrete words arose as a mechanism for ensuring meme fidelity, or lack of errors in the new copies. She explains that those alterations that produce the most copies of the highest fidelity will be those that predominate, thus improving the language. Blackmore goes on to suggest that grammar was an adaptation to improve the fecundity and fidelity of existing memes; its recursive structure then provided the framework for the development of more complex memes, which then favored the existence of more complex grammar, etc. Furthermore, language then began to exert pressure on the genes, creating a selection pressure toward bigger brains that are better at language. If people prefer to mate with those possessing the best or most memes, then the genes that allowed those people to be good meme-spreaders will be differentially transmitted into the next generation. This process again leads to a self-catalytic process of brain evolution that places a strong survival and reproductive advantage on those most...
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