Automobile Industry of India
The Automotive industry in India is one of the largest in the world and one of the fastest growing globally. India manufactures over 17.5 million vehicles (including 2 wheeled and 4 wheeled) and exports about 2.33 million every year. It is the world's second largest manufacturer of motorcycles, with annual sales exceeding 8.5 million in 2009. India's passenger car and commercial vehicle manufacturing industry is the seventh largest in the world, with an annual production of more than 3.7 million units in 2010. According to recent reports, India is set to overtake Brazil to become the sixth largest passenger vehicle producer in the world, growing 16-18 per cent to sell around three million units in the course of 2011-12 In 2009, India emerged as Asia's fourth largest exporter of passenger cars, behind Japan, South Korea, and Thailand. As of 2010, India is home to 40 million passenger vehicles and more than 3.7 million automotive vehicles were produced in India in 2010 (an increase of 33.9%), making the country the second fastest growing automobile market in the world. According to the Society of Indian Automobile Manufacturers, annual car sales are projected to increase up to 5 million vehicles by 2015 and more than 9 million by 2020. By 2050, the country is expected to top the world in car volumes with approximately 611 million vehicles on the nation's roads. The dominant products of the industry are two wheelers with a market share of over 75% and passenger cars with a market share of about 16%. Commercial vehicles and three wheelers share about 9% of the market between them. About 91% of the vehicles sold are used by households and only about 9% for commercial purposes. The industry has attained a turnover of more than USD 35 billion and provides direct and indirect employment to over 13 million people. The supply chain of this industry in India is very similar to the supply chain of the automotive industry in Europe and America. This may present its own set of opportunities and threats. The orders of the industry arise from the bottom of the supply chain i. e., from the consumers and go through the automakers and climbs up until the third tier suppliers. However the products, as channeled in every traditional automotive industry, flow from the top of the supply chain to reach the consumers. Interestingly, the level of trade exports in this sector in India has been medium and imports have been low. However, this is rapidly changing and both exports and imports are increasing. The demand determinants of the industry are factors like affordability, product innovation, infrastructure and price of fuel. Also, the basis of competition in the sector is high and increasing, and its life cycle stage is growth. With a rapidly growing middle class, all the advantages of this sector in India are yet to be leveraged. Note that, with a high cost of developing production facilities, limited accessibility to new technology and soaring competition, the barriers to enter the Indian Automotive sector are high. On the other hand, India has a well-developed tax structure. The power to levy taxes and duties is distributed among the three tiers of Government. The cost structure of the industry is fairly traditional, but the profitability of motor vehicle manufacturers has been rising over the past five years. Major players, like Tata Motors and Maruti Suzuki have material cost of about 80% but are recording profits after tax of about 6% to 11%. The level of technology change in the Motor vehicle Industry has been high but, the rate of change in technology has been medium. Investment in the technology by the producers has been high. System-suppliers of integrated components and sub-systems have become the order of the day. However, further investment in new technologies will help the industry be more competitive. Over the past few years, the...
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