Automation In Agriculture using Robots
Abstract— This paper contains a description of the mechanical design route that was adopted in building a small Agriculture Robot. At the outset, we decided to follow a set of guidelines that defined a broad set of specifications that featured safety, low weight, small length, large mission time, easy-to-use, application specific, and most importantly low cost. The paper will address the most important design issues, lessons learned, and problems that remain for further development. Index Terms: Robot, agriculture, automation etc....
At present technology there are many machines for agriculture. There are separate machines for seed sowing, fertilizer spraying, plough, harvesting which can be driven by a tractor. But the cost of these machines is very high which cannot be afforded by a normal farmer. Now farmers are using only tractors with rotawators etc for ploughing. Seed sowing, fertilizer spraying, weed removing are done manually. Also skilled manpower is required to operate those machines. In many places there is a severe manpower shortage also. Our prototype is designed for performing most of the agricultural tasks. AGROBOT can perform tasks like seed sowing, fertilizer spraying (liquid & solid) and weed removing. The main advantage of AGROBOT is, it is operated in two modes (i.e. automatic mode and manual mode). Manpower can be reduced. When commercially manufactured the cost will be very low and can be afforded by all farmers. :
The AGROBOT system is split into two
➢ A Robot that will establish, care for, survey and harvest the crops according to conventional as well as latest specifications. ➢ IT-Systems for central planning and follow-up on crop related tasks that can be used for coordination and optimization between manned and unmanned vehicles. The idea of applying robotics in agriculture is very new. The main area of application of robots in agriculture is at the cultivation stage. The agricultural industry is behind other industries in using robots because the sort of jobs involved in agriculture are not straight forward and many repetitive tasks are not exactly the same every time. In most cases, a lot of factors have to be considered (i.e.: environmental conditions and nature of crop) before the commencement of a task. This paper is based on a prototype – AGROBOT (designed by us) an autonomous agricultural robot for seed sowing, micro spraying, and weed removing in outdoor environments. AGROBOT
AGROBOT is an autonomous robot which runs on solar energy. It is a 4 wheeled unmanned vehicle which can move in any direction without destroying the crops. All the units (seed sowing device, sprayer, weed Remover) work independently. The robot employs vision systems and a range of sensors to guide the robot along the rows and perform the task accurately. The robot can be operated in two modes (automatic mode & manual mode). [pic]
The wheels are circular in shape and hollow inside. The outer surface of the wheel consists of many ridges which provides maximum grip. The axis is connected to the inner side of the wheel. From the outer end of the wheel, the ridges tappers towards the centre. The outer surface is covered with rubber material. There is a differential in between the rear wheels which are used to control the rear wheels while turning. B. DRIVE SYSTEM
Each wheel is provided with a separate drive system. The rear wheels are provided with a...