Automatic Generation Control of Hybrid Distributed Generation

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  • Topic: Wind power, Distributed generation, Electricity distribution
  • Pages : 23 (6001 words )
  • Download(s) : 241
  • Published : February 26, 2013
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ABSTRACT

Abstract:

Micro-grid power systems are small-scale power-generation solutions consisting of local power-generating facilities and individual homes and buildings equipped with wind and solar power systems. This type of distributed power generation is a lower-cost alternative to large-scale systems.

In this project, a Micro-grid consisting of wind turbine generators, aqua electrolyser, fuel cell and diesel generator, is examined. The wind generator is controlled using a constant power strategy, to reduce the power fluctuation due to wind speed variations. On the other hand power produced from all the other distributed generation (DG) sources are regulated by simple PI controllers. As the balance between the load and generation changes, the power system frequency deviates. In order to reduce these frequency deviations, the PI controllers, used to regulate the power flow from DGs, are tuned through trial and error method. The simulation results show that the employed PI controllers for the DGs perform satisfactorily in a range of operating conditions to enable automatic generation control.

Introduction to Distribution and Micro Grids

Introduction to Distribution and Micro Grids

Distributed Generation:
The energy crisis in the power sector has led to difficulties in meeting the increasing power demand. Meeting these energy needs with distributed generation (DG) is increasing all over the world. Distributed generation is an electric power source connected directly to the distribution network or on the consumer site of the meter.

Distributed generation uses small electric power generation systems located near consumers and load centres. Distributed generation, also called on-site generation, dispersed generation, embedded generation, decentralized generation, decentralized energy or distributed energy, generates electricity from many small energy sources. Currently, industrial countries generate most of their electricity in large centralized facilities, such as fossil fuels (coal, gas powered) nuclear or hydro-power plants. These plants have excellent economies of scale, but usually transmit electricity long distances and negatively affect the environment. Most plants are built this way due to a number of economic, health & safety, logistical, environmental, geographical and geological factors. For example, coal power plants are built away from cities to prevent their heavy air pollution from affecting the populace. In addition, such plants are often built near collieries to minimize the cost of transporting coal. Hydroelectric plants are by their nature limited to operating at sites with sufficient water flow. Most power plants are often considered to be too far away for their waste heat to be used for heating buildings. Low pollution is a crucial advantage of combined cycle plants that burn natural gas. The low pollution permits the plants to be near enough to a city to be used for district heating and cooling. Distributed generation is another approach. It reduces the amount of energy lost in transmitting electricity because the electricity is generated very near where it is used, perhaps even in the same building. This also reduces the size and number of power lines that must be constructed.

Typical distributed power sources in a Feed-in Tariff (FIT) scheme have low maintenance, low pollution and high efficiencies. In the past, these traits required dedicated operating engineers and large complex plants to reduce pollution. However, modern embedded systems can provide these traits with automated operation and renewables, such as sunlight, wind and geothermal. This reduces the size of power plant that can show a profit. | |

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