Autogyro

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  • Topic: Aerodynamics, Airfoil, Lift
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  • Published : May 13, 2013
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AUTOGYRO

CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

An autogyro or also be called gyroplane is the first successful rotorcraft design that is tailored and invented by pioneer Juan de la Cierva. Tremendous progress has been made in the field of aerodynamics of autogyro from the year of its invented and developed until modern technology systems, many problems remain to be solved. The original design of the autogyro is configured a tractor type which both propeller and engine is located at the front of the pilot, and there also another type which is a pusher type where both propeller and engine directly behind the pilot. Since that an actual concept of an autogyro is to be converted into a mini modeling autogyro concept, the analysis and reviewed on the project are needed to be in details and comprehensive as well.

2.1Components of Autogyro
The autogyros are made up by following parts.

2.1.1 Rotor
Every autogyro has a rotor that keeps them in the air where the rotor consists of two or more blades that are attached to the axis with several hinges.

2.1.2 Mast
The rotor should attach to something which is mast. The flexibility of the mast allowed the rotor to shift back and forth somewhat and also the large bending moment in the blade rotors are eliminated.

2.1.3 Fuselage
The fuselage is placed to keep everything else together. To keep drag at a moderate value, it should have a nice and consistent shape. Besides, it also for the hold windscreen to keep the pilot out of the free air stream.

2.1.4 Undercarriage
In case of rotor eccentricities, to prevent the autogyro from falling over, the wheels are needed. The undercarriage flexible to some amount and interact to the rotor flexibility.

2.1.5 Propulsion Mechanism
Generally, autogyro is powered by an engine and propeller that produced a forward thrust. However autogyros with jet engines have existed.

2.1.6 Tail group
i. Vertical surfaces
For the stabilize of the fuselage, vertical tail surface is needed ii. Horizontal surfaces
Since that the fuselage keeps hanging beneath the rotor due to gravitation, horizontal surfaces are not strictly necessary.

2.2Principles of Autogyro
An autogyro is a flying machine, unlike a helicopter, the rotor is not powered by the engine. Through the phenomenon called autorotation, the rotor is made to spin by the aerodynamic forces. Since the rotor is not powered, an autogyro need a separate source for forward propulsion, conventionally, there have been propellers. The simplest explanation for the rotor to spin is that the wind moving or passing through they give their power. Principle of autorotation can be illustrated as follow for a more technical explanation;

Figure 2.1: Vector Diagram of Autorotation

The vector diagram showed illustration of autorotation. The diagram on the lower right showed the wind relative to the rotor. There will be a relative wind since the rotor is spinning, which labeled as Relative Wind due to the Rotor. Due to the fact of the autogyro is moving forward, there is a Relative Wind due to Aircraft Movement and the rotor is mounted where the plane of rotation is a slight angle to the direction of autogyro moving. The sum of both relative winds results in a Resultant Relative Wind. The main diagram showed a cross section of airfoil in time where it is moving forward relative to the autogyro. The Resultant Relative Wind in the smaller diagram is shown as the Relative Wind in this. Both lift and drag are created and produced as the airflow passing over the airfoil where the drag is parallel to the airflow and the lift is perpendicular to the airflow. The sum of the lift and drag result in a resultant force where the resultant force is in front of axis of rotation. For that, in addition to provide lift, the rotor also pulled forward.

2.3The rotor
This project is about to design and fabricate a mini model of autogyro by focused...
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