QSO 510
Problem 1
(i) First, I would build a model that fits the historical data well, then secondly, I would use the model to forecast the future. In terms of models that I might use, I may use the Random Walk Model or I might choose to use Autocorrelation.

(ii)

(iii) According to the textbook, the problem with time series data is that the residuals are often correlated with nearby residuals, a property called autocorrelation . The most frequent type of autocorrelation is positive autocorrelation. For example, if residuals separated by one month are correlated—called lag 1 autocorrelation—in a positive direction, then an over prediction in January, say, will likely lead to an overestimate in February, and an underestimate in January will likely lead to an under prediction in February. If this autocorrelation is large, serious prediction errors can occur if it isn't dealt with appropriately. The numerical measure developed to check for lag 1 autocorrelation is called the Durbin-Watson statistic, and it is quoted automatically in the regression output of many statistical software packages. The Durbin-Watson (DW) statistic is scaled to be between 0 and 4. Values close to 2 indicate very little lag 1 autocorrelation, values below 2 indicate positive autocorrelation, and values above 2 indicate negative autocorrelation. (iv) I would use a Runs Test to determine if there are too many or too few runs in the series—and if either is the case, then the null hypothesis of randomness can be rejected.

...ECM1000 Research Methods in
Finance
Lecture 9
Autocorrelation
1
Outline
•
•
•
•
Introduction
Consequences of Autocorrelated Disturbances
Detecting Autocorrelation
Remedy
References:
Gujrati, Ch. 12
Introduction
Imagine that we are fitting the regression equation to a set of
economic variables observed through time:
yt xt1 ........ xtk ut
Then it is usual to assume that the disturbance ut represents the net
effect of everything not accounted for by the systematic part of the
regression.
Now imagine that, instead of accumulating over time, the effects of
these variables will tend to cancel each other in any period. Then
their overall effect might have a small constant expected value. The
inclusion of the intercept term allows us to assume that E (ut ) 0
; for any nonzero net effect of the subsidiary variables will be
absorbed by .
Introduction
Economic variables evolve over time and they are strongly
correlated with each other. If the disturbance term is indeed
compounded from such variables, then we should expect that it
too will follow a slowly-evolving trend. The assumptions of the
classical regression model that disturbance terms are
independently and identically distributed random variables are
no more tenable. In such cases -
E (ut u s ) 0
We experience Autocorrelation
for
t s
Causes
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Inertia
Specification bias – excluded variable
Specification bias – incorrect...

...• The explosive growth of the e-business/knowledge sectors, coupled with rapid developments in communication technology and the evolution of business relationships to include more international joint ventures, have both enabled and fuelled a greater need for movement of individuals across the globe.
• In the wake of globalisation wherein knowledge of global business markets and processes is now necessary for competitive advantage, international assignments continue to be important for employers and employees alike.
• In particular, the emergence of markets such as China, India and Eastern Europe has had led to an increasing demand for managers with distinctive competences to manage in these countries. (Collings et al, 2006)
• However, the context has altered and traditional models do not take into account quick-to-market demand and cost-effective deployment or enable increased cross-border volume for shorter assignment times. Furthermore, new models need to be flexible to the changing work-life requirements of employees.
• As a result there is increasing prominence of alternative forms of IAs (Fenwick, 2004)
• In this essay I intend to critique the key issues surrounding the different IAs available and outline their respective benefits.
THE TRADITIONAL IA
• Edström and Galbraith (1977) proposed three motives for IAs: position fillers, as a means of management development and as a means of organisational development.
• Returning...

...
Short answers
5. What two things must you normally specify in a variable declaration?
You must specify the variable type and an identifier.
int n; // type - int, identifier - n
6. What value is stored in uninitialized variables?
is a variable that is declared but is not set to a definite known value before it is used.
Algorithm workbench
3. Write assignment statements that perform the following operations with the variables a, b, and c.
a. Adds 2 to a and stores the result in b
b. Multiplies b times 4 and stores the result in a
c. Divides a by 3.14 and stores the result in b
d. Subtracts 8 from b and stores the result in a
Assignment statements that perform operations with the variables a, b, and c* (*Actually none of these operations involves the variable c at all... is this an error, or a 'trick answer'?):
b = a + 2
a = b * 4
b = a / 3.14
a = b – 8
4. Assume the variables result, w, x, y, and z are all integers, and that w = 5, x = 4, y = 8, and z = 2. What value will be stored in result in each of the following statements?
a. Set result = x + y
b. Set result = z * 2
c. Set result = y / x
d. Set result = y – z
result = x++ - y;
Answer -4
result = 4 – 8 = -4
result = ++w + y;
Answer
w = w + 1 = 5 + 1 = 6
result = 6 + 8 = 14
5. Write a pseudocode statement that declares the variable cost so it can hold real numbers.
Declare Real price= 0.00
Display "the original price."
Input item original price
Display...

...[pic]
ASSIGNMENT SUBMISSION AND ASSESSMENT
_________________________________________________________________________
OUMM3203
PROFESSIONAL ETHICS
(PLEASE EDIT WHERE NECESSARY-THIS IS ONLY SUGGESTIONS FOR THE ASSIGNMENT’S GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS)
_________________________________________________________________________
INSTRUCTIONS TO STUDENTS
1. This assignment contains only ONE (1) question that is set in the language of the printed module for the course.
2. Answer in _______ or English.
3. Download the language version of the assignment template concerned from the MyVLE for preparation and submission of your assignment. Your assignment should be typed using 12 point Times New Roman font and 1.5 line spacing.
4. Your assignment should be between 2500 to 3000 words excluding references. The number of words should be shown at the end of your assignment. Do not copy the assignment question and instructions to your answer.
5. You must submit your assignment ON-LINE via the MyVLE. Refer to the portal for instructions on the procedures to submit your assignment on-line. You are advised to keep a copy of your submitted assignment for personal reference.
6. You can submit your assignment ONCE only in a SINGLE file.
7. Your assignment must be submitted between...

...PT1420 - Unit 5 Homework and Lab Assignment
Unit 5 Assignment 1: Homework
1.) Design an if-then statement that assigns 20 to the variable y and assigns 40 to the variable z if the variable x is greater than 100. (Simple if statement)
If x > 100 then
Y=20
Z=40
End if
2.) Design an if-then statement that assigns 0 to the variable b and assigns 1 to the variable c if variable a is less than 10. (Simple if statement)
3.) Design an if-then-else statement that assigns 0 to variable b if variable a is less than 10, otherwise it should assign 99 to variable b. (Alternative if statement)
If a < 10 then
B = 0
Else
B = 99
End f
4.) The symbols >, <, and == are all Relational operators.
5.) The if-then statement is an example of a conditioal structure.
6.) The Selection structure is based on boolean logic.
7.) The if-else statement is know as a dual alternative decision structure.
8.) A nested if statement is used to ask multiple questions before deciding what processing path to take.
True False
*****************************************************************
Unit 5 Labs
1.) Lab 5.1: Evaluating Conditions with Relational Operators.
Critical Review
A relational operator determines whether a specific relationship exists between two values.
Relational operators
Operator
Meaning
Boolean Expression
>
Greater than
X > Y
<
Less than
X < Y
>=
Greater than or equal to
X >= Y
<=
Less than...

...
Chartered Management Institute Approved Centre
Level 5 Extended Diploma in Management and Leadership
Written Assessment – 5
Unit 5001V1
Instruction Sheet
Assignment: Unit 5001V1 – Personal development as a manager and leader
Level: 5
Lecturer: Ian Laing
Date of Issue: 13th May 2015
Date Due In: 26th June 2015
Format: Word Document submitted to:
ianlaing@ihlassociates.karoo.co.uk
Assessment Outline
Candidates are to write an essay of between 2500 and 3000 words excluding appendices about how to improve their own management and leadership skills and competencies to help meet your performance objectives. You should also write about how you develop effective working relationships to help you deal with a variety of situations in the workplace which will require you to support and promote staff welfare.
Your essay should be based on research, investigation and analysis which you have carried out yourself making sure that you acknowledge sources and include appropriate references, bibliography and appendices in support of your investigation and argument.
The essay should answer the following questions demonstrating your knowledge and understanding of the topics covered by this unit.
1. Identify the importance of continual self-development in achieving organisation objectives. Also assess your current skills and competencies against...

...conEcon345 Money and Banking Assignment 1
Zhongli Sui (Bill) 31438104
a). What is YTM(i) for bond A and B? which one is highest?
Bond A: 1000 = 1001+i + 901+i2 + 80(1+i)3 + 70(1+i)4 + 60(1+i)5 + 600(1+i)5
i(A) = 0
Bond B: 1000 = 1001+i + 1001+i2 + 100(1+i)3 + 100(1+i)4 + 40(1+i)5 + 400(1+i)5
i(B) = - 0.04419415
Bond A has higher yield than Bond B. ( 0 > -0.044195)
b). Suppose i=0.05 for both bond A and B, which bond has higher price?
Bond A:
P = 1001+0.05 + 901+0.052 + 80(1+0.05)3 + 70(1+0.05)4 + 60(1+0.05)5 + 600(1+0.05)5 = $820.69
Bond B:
P = 1001+0.05 + 1001+0.052 + 100(1+0.05)3 + 100(1+0.05)4 + 40(1+0.05)5 + 400(1+0.05)5 = $699.35
c). Is there an identical i that i(t)=i(t+1)=i(t+2)=… that makes bond price for A and B identical?
1001+i + 901+i2 + 80(1+i)3 + 70(1+i)4 + 60(1+i)5 + 600(1+i)5
= 1001+i + 1001+i2 + 100(1+i)3 + 100(1+i)4 + 40(1+i)5 + 400(1+i)5
When i = 100%, both bond A and bond B have price equal to $107.50
Which bond is more risky?
If all the information is correct, bond A is more risky in year 1 to 4, and bond B is more risky at year 5 due to the CEO resign....

...Running head: WEEK 1
Week One Assignment
Patrick Cain
Mat222: Intermediate Algebra
Joseph Oslakovic
August 27, 2012
Week One Assignment
I will set up two ratios and show an appropriate variable and write the equation. First problem is: Bear population. To estimate the size of the bear population on the Keweenaw Peninsula, conservationists captured, tagged, and released 50 bears. One year later, a random sample of 100 bears included only 2 tagged bears. What is the conservationist's estimate of the size of the bear population?
In the Capture-Recapture method we notice that we are supposed to assume that the ratio of the original 50 tagged bears to the entire population is equal to the ratio of the recaptured tagged bears to the size of the sample (Dugopolski, 2012). First, we will set up the ratios.
Ratio of original tagged bears tot eh whole population is 50
X
The ratio of the recaptured tagged bears are 2
100
50 = 2 This is the proportion ready to solve. I will cross multiply
x 100 setting the extremes equal to the means.
100 (50) = 2x 100 and 50 are the two extremes, while x and 2 are the means.
5000 = 2x Divide both sides by 2.
2...