Many scholars claim Austronesians are admixtures of Austroloids (a group which includes Veddoids, Australians, Negritos and Papuans) and Mongoloids. It is said that the Austroloiddescended from Ngandong man of Java, 9about 150,000 years ago who originated from the older Pithecanthropes of Java. The common features of an Austronesian type were: short face (one of the shortest of any group), high skull, mild epicanthic fold ("almond-shaped eyes"), mild alveolar prognathism (full lower lip with jaw projecting past plane of nose), shovel-shaped incissors and Mesorrhine (medium broad nose on average). Traces of the Austronesians in Culture
The common heritage that we share with the Austronesians are visible in the occurrence of specific cultural characteristics such as tattooing, use of outriggers on canoes, features of ethnographic and prehistoric art styles, and social characteristics such as concern with birth order of siblings and a reverence for ancestral kin group founders. Peter Bellwood and Eusebio Dizon's work proposed that the Bataan sequence was divided into three provisional chronological phases. The first phase was called the Sunget Phase, which was tentatively dated to between 3500 and 2700 BP. The following Naidi Phase (tentatively dated 2500 to 1500/1000 BP) contained assemblages from many sites on Bataan, both inland and coastal (including Naidi itself), but the pottery rim forms from this phase differ from those of the Sunget Phase (albeit with some overlap) in being shorter and often more complex in cross-section. A phase of catastrophic volcanic eruption and landscape burial then occurred on Bataan between 1500 and 1000 BP (with no obvious volcanic repercussions on Itbayat or Sabtang), burying sites of the Sunget and Naidi Phases in northern and central Bataan. The Rakwaydi Phase continued after the eruption on Bataan from about 1000 BP to ethnographic times, with very similar undecorated (apart from occasional red-slipped) pottery forms being present at this time right across Bataan, Sabtang and Itbayat Fortified ijang and boat-shaped stone grave enclosures are characteristic of the Rakwaydi Phase in the Batanesaccording to E. Dizon's study. An inwashed layer of exterior topsoil was found at about 40-65 cm depth on an excavation in 2004 and 2005 in Bataan. Laguna Copperplate Inscription
The Laguna Copperplate Inscription (also shortened to LCI) is the earliest known written document found in the Philippines. The plate was found in 1989 by a sand labourer near the mouth of the Lumbang River in Barangay Wawa, Lumban, Laguna. The inscription on the plate was first deciphered by Dutch anthropologist Antoon Postma. The discovery of the plate is cited as evidence of cultural links between the Pre-HispanicTagalog people and the various contemporary Asian civilisations, most notably theJavanese Medang Kingdom, the Srivijaya Empire, and the Middle kingdoms of India. Description
The LCI is a thin copper plate measuring less than 20 × 30 cm (8 × 12 inches) in size with words directly embossed onto the plate. This differs in manufacture from other Javanese scrolls of the period, which had the words inscribed onto a heated, softened scroll of metal. Inscribed on it the Saka era date year of Siyaka 822, month of Waisaka, the fourth day of the waning moon,...