A complex set of social, economic, cultural, political criteria is usually used to classify the geographical regions. The regions are distinct in terms of size, population, development, potential of growth. Some are representative for the recent industrialization (south East Asia), others for economic and human backwardness (sub-Saharan Africa), others for economic supremacy and political hegemony (North America) or others for profound and radical transformations in the recent years (Eastern Europe and former Soviet Union). Due to the macro-scale of analysis, the most important criterion is general functionally; the uniqueness and homogeneity come second. The typology of main regions of the world is based on a macro-economic indicator, GDP per capita, that sets apart eight regions: North America, Latin America and the Caribbean, Western Europe, Eastern Europe and Russian Federation, North Africa and Southwest Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa, Southeastern and Pacific Asia, Australia and Oceania. Australia and Oceania represent an economic region made of Australia, New Zealand, and the archipelagos of Melanesia, Polynesia and Micronesia, characterized by a relative isolation from the major cores of the world economy. Despite this, Australia, although populated mainly along the shores is developed country. Mineral and energetic resources are important: coal, iron, copper, zinc, gold, silver, uranium lie at the basis of the performing and diversified industry. Agriculture in Australia and New Zealand is dominated by intensive animal breeding (especially sheep) placing these countries in the top of the world producers of dairy products, meat and wool. Australian metropolises Melbourne, Sydney, Adelaide, Perth, and Brisbane are remarkable due to their huge concentrations of population, economic activities and capital and information flows. The islands are dominated by agricultural and tourist activities, less by industrial ones. There are some offshore financial centers aiming to attract investments and capital, the best example is that of Vanuatu, New Hebrides, where about 50 million US $ passes through its bank every day.
Oceania is a geographical, often geopolitical, region consisting of numerous landsmostly islands and usually including Australiain the Pacific Ocean and vicinity. The exact scope of Oceania is defined variously, with interpretations normally including Australia, New Zealand, New Guinea, and various islands of the Malay Archipelago. The term is also used by many authors and in many languages to define one of the continents. Originally coined by the French explorer Dumont d'Urville in 1831, Oceania has been traditionally divided into Micronesia, Melanesia, Polynesia, and Australasia. As with any region, however, interpretations vary; increasingly, geographers and scientists divide Oceania into Near Oceania and Remote Oceania. Most of Oceania consists of small island nations. Australia is the only continental country; by some definitions, Indonesia has land borders with Papua New Guinea, East Timor, and Malaysia. Australia.
Australia's 7,686,850 square kilometers (2,967,909 sq. mi) landmass is on the Indo-Australian Plate. Surrounded by the Indian, Southern and Pacific oceans, Australia is separated from Asia by the Arafura and Timor seas. Australia has a total 25,760 kilometers (16,007 mi) of coastline and claims an extensive Exclusive Economic Zone of 8,148,250 square kilometers (3,146,057 sq. mi). This exclusive economic zone does not include the Australian Antarctic Territory. The Great Barrier Reef, the world's largest coral reef, lies a short distance off the north-east coast and extends for over 2,000 kilometers (1,250 mi). The world's largest monolith, Mount Augustus, is located in Western Australia. At 2,228 meters (7,310 ft), Mount Kosciuszko on the Great Dividing Range is the highest mountain on the Australian mainland, although Mawson...